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Monday, November 14, 2011

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Superman

Promotional art for
Superman #204 (vol. 2, April 2004)
by Jim Lee and Scott Williams
Publication information
Publisher  DC Comics
First appearance  Action Comics #1
(June 30, 1938)
Created by  Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster
In-story information
Alter ego  Kal-El, adopted as
Clark Joseph Kent
Place of origin  Krypton
Team affiliations  The Daily Planet
Justice League
Legion of Super-Heroes
Team Superman
Notable aliases  Gangbuster, Nightwing, Jordan Elliot, Supernova, Superboy, Superman Prime
Abilities  Superhuman strength, speed, stamina, durability, senses, intelligence, regeneration, and longevity; super breath, heat vision, x-ray vision and flight

Superman is a fictional character, a comic book superhero widely considered to be an American cultural icon.[1][2][3][4] Created by American writer Jerry Siegel and Canadian-born artist Joe Shuster in 1932 while both were living in Cleveland, Ohio, and sold to Detective Comics, Inc. in 1938, the character first appeared in Action Comics #1 (June 30, 1938) and subsequently appeared in various radio serials, television programs, films, newspaper strips, and video games. With the success of his adventures, Superman helped to create the superhero genre and establish its primacy within the American comic book.[1] The character's appearance is distinctive and iconic: a red, blue and yellow costume, complete with cape, like a circus costume, with a stylized "S" shield on his chest.[5][6][7] This shield is now typically used across media to symbolize the character.[8]

The original story of Superman relates that he was born Kal-El on the planet Krypton, before being rocketed to Earth as an infant by his scientist father Jor-El, moments before Krypton's destruction. Discovered and adopted by a Kansas farmer and his wife, the child is raised as Clark Kent and imbued with a strong moral compass. Very early he started to display superhuman abilities, which upon reaching maturity he resolved to use for the benefit of humanity.

While referred to less than flatteringly as "the big blue Boy Scout" by some of his fellow superheroes,[9] Superman is hailed as "The Man of Steel", "The Man of Tomorrow", and "The Last Son of Krypton" by the general public within the comics. As Clark Kent, Superman lives among humans as a "mild-mannered reporter" for the Metropolis newspaper Daily Planet (Daily Star in the earliest stories). There he works alongside reporter Lois Lane, with whom he is romantically linked. This relationship has been consummated by marriage on numerous occasions across various media, and this union is now firmly established within mainstream comics' continuity.

DC Comics/Warner Bros. slowly expanded the character's supporting cast, powers, and trappings throughout the years. Superman's backstory was altered to allow for adventures as Superboy, and other survivors of Krypton were created, including Supergirl and Krypto the Superdog. In addition, Superman has been licensed and adapted into a variety of media, from radio to television and film, perhaps most notably portrayed by Christopher Reeve in Richard Donner's Superman: The Movie in 1978, which garnered critical praise and became Warner Bros.' most successful feature film of its time. The motion picture Superman Returns was released in 2006, with a performance at the international box office which exceeded expectations.[10] In the seven decades since Superman's debut, the character has been revamped and updated several times.

A significant overhaul occurred in 1986, when John Byrne revamped and "retconned" the character, reducing Superman's powers and erasing several characters from the canon, in a move that attracted media attention. Press coverage was again garnered by DC Comics in the 1990s with The Death of Superman, a storyline which saw the character killed and later restored to life.

Superman has fascinated scholars, with cultural theorists, commentators, and critics alike exploring the character's impact and role in the United States and the rest of the world. Umberto Eco discussed the mythic qualities of the character in the early 1960s, and Larry Niven has pondered the implications of a sexual relationship the character might enjoy with Lois Lane.[11] The character's ownership has often been the subject of dispute, with Siegel and Shuster twice suing for the return of legal ownership. The copyright is again currently in dispute, with changes in copyright law allowing Siegel's wife and daughter to claim a share of the copyright, a move DC parent company Warner Bros. disputes.
Contents
[hide]

    * 1 Publication history
          o 1.1 Creation and conception
          o 1.2 Publication
          o 1.3 Influences
          o 1.4 Copyright issues
    * 2 Comic book character
          o 2.1 Personality
          o 2.2 Alternative versions
    * 3 Powers and abilities
    * 4 Supporting cast
    * 5 Cultural impact
          o 5.1 Inspiring a market
          o 5.2 Merchandising
          o 5.3 In other media
          o 5.4 Musical references, parodies, and homages
          o 5.5 Literary analysis
          o 5.6 Critical reception and popularity
    * 6 Notes
    * 7 References
    * 8 External links

Publication history

Creation and conception
"The Reign of the Super-Man" in the fanzine Science Fiction vol. 1, #3 (June 1933).

Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster first created a bald telepathic villain bent on dominating the entire world. He appeared in the short story "The Reign of the Super-Man" from Science Fiction #3, a science fiction fanzine that Siegel published in 1933.[12] Siegel re-wrote the character in 1933 as a hero, bearing little or no resemblance to his villainous namesake, and began a six-year quest to find a publisher. Titling it The Superman, Siegel and Shuster offered it to Consolidated Book Publishing, who had published a 48-page black-and-white comic book entitled Detective Dan: Secret Operative No. 48. Although the duo received an encouraging letter, Consolidated never again published comic books. Shuster took this to heart and burned all pages of the story, the cover surviving only because Siegel rescued it from the fire. Siegel and Shuster each compared this character to Slam Bradley, an adventurer the pair had created for Detective Comics #1 (May 1939).[13]

Siegel contacted other artists to collaborate on the strip, according to Gerard Jones feeling that "Superman was going nowhere with Joe".[14] Tony Strobl, Mel Graff and Russell Keaton were all contacted as potential collaborators by Siegel.[14] Artwork produced by Keaton based on Siegel's treatment shows the concept evolving. Superman is now sent back in time as a baby by the last man on Earth, where he is found and raised by Sam and Molly Kent.[15] However Keaton did not pursue the collaboration, and soon Siegel and Shuster were back working together on the character again.[14]

The pair re-envisioned the character, who became more of a hero in the mythic tradition, inspired by such characters as Samson and Hercules,[16] who would right the wrongs of Siegel and Shuster's times, fighting for social justice and against tyranny. It was at this stage the costume was introduced, Siegel later recalling that they created a "kind of costume and let's give him a big S on his chest, and a cape, make him as colorful as we can and as distinctive as we can."[5] The design was based in part on the costumes worn by characters in outer space settings published in pulp magazines, as well as comic strips such as Flash Gordon,[17] and also partly suggested by the traditional circus strong-man outfit.[5][18] However, the cape has been noted as being markedly different from the Victorian tradition. Gary Engle described it as without "precedent in popular culture" in Superman at Fifty: The Persistence of a Legend.[19] The pants-over-tights outfit was soon established as the basis for many future superhero outfits. This third version of the character was given extraordinary abilities, although this time of a physical nature as opposed to the mental abilities of the villainous Superman.[5]

The locale and the hero's civilian names were inspired by the movies, Shuster said in 1983. "Jerry created all the names. We were great movie fans, and were inspired a lot by the actors and actresses we saw. As for Clark Kent, he combined the names of Clark Gable and Kent Taylor. And Metropolis, the city in which Superman operated, came from the Fritz Lang movie [Metropolis, 1927], which we both loved".[20]

Although they were by now selling material to comic book publishers, notably Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson's National Allied Publishing, the pair decided to feature this character in a comic strip format, rather than in the longer comic book story format that was establishing itself at this time. They offered it to both Max Gaines, who passed, and to United Feature Syndicate, who expressed interest initially but finally rejected the strip in a letter dated February 18, 1937. However, in what historian Les Daniels describes as "an incredibly convoluted turn of events", Max Gaines ended up positioning the strip as the lead feature in Wheeler-Nicholson's new publication, Action Comics. Vin Sullivan, editor of the new book, wrote to the pair requesting that the comic strips be refashioned to suit the comic book format, requesting "eight panels a page". However Siegel and Shuster ignored this, utilizing their own experience and ideas to create page layouts, with Siegel also identifying the image used for the cover of Action Comics #1 (June 1938), Superman's first appearance.[21]

Siegel may have been inspired to create the Superman character due to the death of his father. Mitchell Siegel was an immigrant who owned a clothing store on New York's Lower East Side. He died during a robbery attempt in 1932, a year before Superman was created. Although Siegel never mentioned the death of his father in interviews, both Gerard Jones and Brad Meltzer believe it must have affected him. "It had to have an effect," says Jones. "There's a connection there: the loss of a dad as a source for Superman." Meltzer states: "Your father dies in a robbery, and you invent a bulletproof man who becomes the world's greatest hero. I'm sorry, but there's a story there."[22]

Publication

    See also: List of Superman comics

Superman making his debut in Action Comics #1 (June 1938). Cover art by Joe Shuster.

Superman's first appearance was in Action Comics #1, in 1938. In 1939, a self-titled series was launched. The first issue mainly reprinted adventures published in Action Comics, but despite this the book achieved greater sales.[23] 1939 also saw the publication of New York World's Fair Comics, which by summer of 1942 became World's Finest Comics. With issue #7 of All Star Comics, Superman made the first of a number of infrequent appearances, on this occasion appearing in cameo to establish his honorary membership of the Justice Society of America.[24]

Initially Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster would provide the story and art for all the strips published. However, Shuster's eyesight began to deteriorate, and the increasing appearances of the character saw an increase in the workload. This led Shuster to establish a studio to assist in the production of the art,[23] although he insisted on drawing the face of every Superman the studio produced. Outside the studio, Jack Burnley began supplying covers and stories in 1940,[25] and in 1941, artist Fred Ray began contributing a stream of Superman covers, some of which, such as that of Superman #14 (Feb. 1942), became iconic and much-reproduced. Wayne Boring, initially employed in Shuster's studio, began working for DC in his own right in 1942 providing pages for both Superman and Action Comics.[26] Al Plastino was hired initially to copy Wayne Boring but was eventually allowed to create his own style and became one of the most prolific Superman artists during the Gold and Silver Ages of comics.[27]

The scripting duties also became shared. In late 1939 a new editorial team assumed control of the character's adventures. Whitney Ellsworth, Mort Weisinger and Jack Schiff were brought in following Vin Sullivan's departure. This new editorial team brought in Edmond Hamilton, Manly Wade Wellman, and Alfred Bester, established writers of science fiction.[28]

By 1943, Jerry Siegel was drafted into the army in a special celebration, and his duties there saw high contributions drop. Don Cameron and Alvin Schwartz joined the writing team, Schwartz teaming up with Wayne Boring to work on the Superman comic strip which had been launched by Siegel and Shuster in 1939.[26]

In 1945, Superboy made his debut in More Fun Comics #101. The character moved to Adventure Comics in 1946, and his own title, Superboy, launched in 1949. The 1950s saw the launching of Superman's Pal Jimmy Olsen (1954) and Superman's Girlfriend Lois Lane (1958). By 1974 these titles had merged into Superman Family, although the series was cancelled in 1982. DC Comics Presents was a series published from 1978 to 1986 featuring team-ups between Superman and a wide variety of other characters of the DC Universe.

In 1986, a decision was taken to restructure the universe the Superman character inhabited with other DC characters. This saw the publication of "Whatever Happened to the Man of Tomorrow", a two part story written by Alan Moore, with art by Curt Swan, George Pérez and Kurt Schaffenberger.[29] The story was published in Superman #423 and Action Comics #583, and presented what Les Daniels notes as "the sense of loss the fans might have experienced if this had really been the last Superman tale."[30]
Superman's origin is reimagined in The Man of Steel #1 (July 1986), written and drawn by John Byrne.

Superman was relaunched by writer & artist John Byrne, initially in the limited series The Man of Steel (1986). 1986 also saw the cancellation of World's Finest Comics, and the Superman title renamed Adventures of Superman. A second volume of Superman was launched in 1987, running until cancellation in 2006. This cancellation saw Adventures of Superman revert to the Superman title. Superman: The Man of Steel was launched in 1991, running until 2003, whilst the quarterly book Superman: The Man of Tomorrow ran from 1995 to 1999. In 2003 Superman/Batman launched, as well as the Superman: Birthright limited series, with All Star Superman launched in 2005 and Superman Confidential in 2006 (this title was cancelled in 2008). He also appeared in the TV animated series based comic book tie-ins Superman Adventures (1996–2002), Justice League Adventures, Justice League Unlimited (canceled in 2008) and The Legion of Super-Heroes In The 31st Century (canceled in 2008).

Current ongoing publications that feature Superman on a regular basis are Superman, Action Comics, All-Star Superman, Superman/Batman, and Justice League of America. The character often appears as a guest star in other series and is usually a pivotal figure in DC crossover events.

Influences

An influence on early Superman stories is the context of the Great Depression. The left-leaning perspective of creators Shuster and Siegel is reflected in early storylines. Superman took on the role of social activist, fighting crooked businessmen and politicians and demolishing run-down tenements.[31] This is seen by comics scholar Roger Sabin as a reflection of "the liberal idealism of Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal", with Shuster and Siegel initially portraying Superman as champion to a variety of social causes.[32] In later Superman radio programs the character continued to take on such issues, tackling a version of the KKK in a 1946 broadcast.[33][34] Siegel and Shuster's status as children of Jewish immigrants is also thought to have influenced their work. Timothy Aaron Pevey has argued that they crafted "an immigrant figure whose desire was to fit into American culture as an American", something which Pevey feels taps into an important aspect of American identity.[35]

Siegel himself noted that the many mythic heroes which exist in the traditions of many cultures bore an influence on the character, including Hercules and Samson.[5] The character has also been seen by Scott Bukatman to be "a worthy successor to Lindberg ... (and) also ... like Babe Ruth", and is also representative of the United States dedication to "progress and the 'new'" through his "invulnerable body ... on which history cannot be inscribed."[36] Further, given that Siegel and Shuster were noted fans of pulp science fiction,[12] it has been suggested that another influence may have been Hugo Danner. Danner was the main character of the 1930 novel Gladiator by Philip Wylie, and is possessed of same powers of the early Superman.[37]

Because Siegel and Shuster were both Jewish, some religious commentators and pop-culture scholars such as Rabbi Simcha Weinstein and British novelist Howard Jacobson suggest that Superman's creation was partly influenced by Moses,[38][39] and other Jewish elements. Superman's Kryptonian name, "Kal-El," resembles the Hebrew words -, which can be taken to mean "voice of God".[40] [41]. The suffix "el", meaning "(of) God"[42] is also found in the name of angels (e.g. Gabriel, Ariel), who are flying humanoid agents of good with superhuman powers. Jewish legends of the Golem have been cited as worthy of comparison,[43] a Golem being a mythical being created to protect and serve the persecuted Jews of 16th century Prague and later revived in popular culture in reference to their suffering at the hands of the Nazis in Europe during the 1930s and 1940s. Superman is often seen as being an analogy for Jesus, being a saviour of humanity.[39][43][32][44]

Whilst the term Superman was initially coined by Nietzsche, it is unclear how influential Nietzsche and his ideals were to Siegel and Shuster.[39] Les Daniels has speculated that "Siegel picked up the term from other science fiction writers who had casually employed it", further noting that "his concept is remembered by hundreds of millions who may barely know who Nietzsche is."[5] Others argue that Siegel and Shuster "could not have been unaware of an idea that would dominate Hitler's National Socialism. The concept was certainly well discussed."[45] Yet Jacobson and others point out that in many ways Superman and the Übermensch are polar opposites.[38] Nietzsche envisioned the Übermensch as a man who had transcended the limitations of society, religion, and conventional morality while still being fundamentally human. Superman, although an alien gifted with incredible powers, chooses to honor human moral codes and social mores. Nietzsche envisioned the perfect man as being beyond moral codes; Siegel and Shuster envisioned the perfect man as holding himself to a higher standard of adherence to them.[46]

Siegel and Shuster have themselves discussed a number of influences that impacted upon the character. Both were avid readers, and their mutual love of science fiction helped to drive their friendship. Siegel cited John Carter stories as an influence: "Carter was able to leap great distances because the planet Mars was smaller that the planet Earth; and he had great strength. I visualized the planet Krypton as a huge planet, much larger than Earth".[20] The pair were also avid collectors of comic strips in their youth, cutting them from the newspaper, with Winsor McKay's Little Nemo firing their imagination with its sense of fantasy.[47] Shuster has remarked on the artists which played an important part in the development of his own style, whilst also noting a larger influence: "Alex Raymond and Burne Hogarth were my idols — also Milt Caniff, Hal Foster, and Roy Crane. But the movies were the greatest influence on our imagination: especially the films of Douglas Fairbanks Senior."[48] Fairbanks' role as Robin Hood was certainly an inspiration, as Shuster admitted to basing Superman's stance upon scenes from the movie.[49] The movies also influenced the storytelling and page layouts,[50] whilst the city of Metropolis was named in honor of the Fritz Lang motion picture of the same title.[20]

Copyright issues

As part of the deal which saw Superman published in Action Comics, Siegel and Shuster sold the rights to the company in return for $130 and a contract to supply the publisher with material.[51][52] The Saturday Evening Post reported in 1940 that the pair was each being paid $75,000 a year, a fraction of National Comics Publications' millions in Superman profits.[53] Siegel and Shuster renegotiated their deal, but bad blood lingered and in 1947 Siegel and Shuster sued for their 1938 contract to be made void and the re-establishment of their ownership of the intellectual property rights to Superman. The pair also sued National in the same year over the rights to Superboy, which they claimed was a separate creation that National had published without authorization. National immediately fired them and took their byline off the stories, prompting a legal battle that ended in 1948, when a New York court ruled that the 1938 contract should be upheld. However, a ruling from Justice J. Addison Young awarded them the rights to Superboy. A month after the Superboy judgment the two sides agreed on a settlement. National paid Siegel and Shuster $94,000 for the rights to Superboy. The pair also acknowledged in writing the company's ownership of Superman, attesting that they held rights for "all other forms of reproduction and presentation, whether now in existence or that may hereafter be created",[54] but DC refused to re-hire them.[55]
Jerry Siegel, with wife Joanne and daughter Laura in 1976. Joanne and Laura Siegel filed a termination notice on Jerry Siegel's share of the copyright of Superman in 1999.

In 1973 Siegel and Shuster again launched a suit claiming ownership of Superman, this time basing the claim on the Copyright Act of 1909 which saw copyright granted for 28 years but allowed for a renewal of an extra 28 years. Their argument was that they had granted DC the copyright for only 28 years. The pair again lost this battle, both in a district court ruling of October 18, 1973 and an appeal court ruling of December 5, 1974.[56]

In 1975 after news reports of their pauper-like existences, Warner Communications gave Siegel and Shuster lifetime pensions of $20,000 per year and health care benefits. Jay Emmett, then executive vice president of Warner Bros., was quoted in the New York Times as stating, "There is no legal obligation, but I sure feel there is a moral obligation on our part."[53] In addition, any media production that includes the Superman character were to include the credit "Superman created by Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster".[52]

The year after this settlement, 1976, saw the copyright term extended again, this time for another 19 years to a total of 75 years. However, this time a clause was inserted into the extension to allow a creator to reclaim their work, reflecting the arguments Siegel and Shuster had made in 1973. The new act came into power in 1978 and allowed a reclamation window in a period based on the previous copyright term of 56 years. This meant the copyright on Superman could be reclaimed between 1994 to 1999, based on the initial publication date of 1938. Jerry Siegel having died in January 1996, his wife and daughter filed a copyright termination notice in 1999. Although Joe Shuster died in July 1992, no termination was filed at this time by his estate.[57]

1998 saw copyright extended again, with the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act. This time the copyright term was extended to 95 years, with a further window for reclamation introduced. In January 2004 Mark Peary, nephew and legal heir to Joe Shuster's estate, filed notice of his intent to reclaim Shuster's half of the copyright, the termination effective in 2013.[57] The status of Siegel's share of the copyright is now the subject of a legal battle. Warner Bros. and the Siegels entered into discussions on how to resolve the issues raised by the termination notice, but these discussions were set aside by the Siegels and in October 2004 they filed suit alleging copyright infringement on the part of Warner Bros. Warner Bros. counter sued, alleging the termination notice contains defects amongst other arguments.[58][59] On March 26, 2008, Judge Larson of the United States District Court for the Central District of California ruled that Siegel's estate was entitled to claim a share in the United States copyright. The ruling does not affect the International rights, which Time Warner holds on the character through DC. Issues regarding the amount of monies owed Siegel's estate and whether the claim the estate has extends to derivative works such as movie versions will be settled at trial, although any compensation would only be owed from works published since 1999. Time Warner offered no statement on the ruling, but do have the right to challenge it.[60][61]The case is currently[update] scheduled to be heard in a California federal court in May, 2008.[62]

A similar termination of copyright notice filed in 2002 by Siegel's wife and daughter concerning the Superboy character was ruled in their favor on March 23, 2006.[63] However, on July 27, 2007, the same court issued a ruling [64] reversing the March 23, 2006 ruling. This ruling is currently subject to a legal challenge from Time Warner, with the case as yet[update] unresolved.[60]

Comic book character

    Main article: History of Superman
    See also: Superman (Earth-Two)

Superman, given the serial nature of comic publishing and the length of the character's existence, has evolved as a character as his adventures have increased.[65] The details of Superman's origin, relationships and abilities changed significantly during the course of the character's publication, from what is considered the Golden Age of Comic Books through the Modern Age. The powers and villains were developed through the 1940s, with Superman developing the ability to fly, and costumed villains introduced from 1941.[66] The character was shown as learning of the existence of Krypton in 1949. The concept itself had originally been established to the reader in 1939, in the Superman comic strip.[67]

The 1960s saw the introduction of a second Superman. DC had established a multiverse within the fictional universe its characters shared. This allowed characters published in the 1940s to exist alongside updated counterparts published in the 1960s. This was explained to the reader through the notion that the two groups of characters inhabited parallel Earths. The second Superman was introduced to explain to the reader Superman's membership of both the 1940s superhero team the Justice Society of America and the 1960s superhero team the Justice League of America.[68]
Superman dies in Lois Lane's arms: Superman #75 (vol. 2, Jan. 1993). Art by Dan Jurgens and Brett Breeding.

The 1980s saw radical revisions of the character. DC decided to remove the multiverse in a bid to simplify its comics line. This led to the rewriting of the back story of the characters DC published, Superman included. John Byrne rewrote Superman, removing many established conventions and characters from continuity, including Superboy and Supergirl. Byrne also re-established Superman's adoptive parents, The Kents, as characters.[69] In the previous continuity the characters had been written as having died early in Superman's life (about the time of Clark Kent's graduation from high school).

The 1990s saw Superman killed by the villain Doomsday,[70] although the character was soon resurrected.[71] Superman also marries Lois Lane in 1996. His origin is again revisited in 2004.[72] In 2006 Superman is stripped of his powers,[73] although these are restored within a fictional year.[74]

Personality

In the original Siegel and Shuster stories, Superman's personality is rough and aggressive. The character was seen stepping in to stop wife beaters, profiteers, a lynch mob and gangsters, with rather rough edges and a looser moral code than audiences may be used to today.[31] Later writers have softened the character, and instilled a sense of idealism and moral code of conduct. Although not as cold-blooded as the early Batman, the Superman featured in the comics of the 1930s is unconcerned about the harm his strength may cause, tossing villainous characters in such a manner that fatalities would presumably occur, although these were seldom shown explicitly on the page. This came to an end late in 1940, when new editor Whitney Ellsworth instituted a code of conduct for his characters to follow, banning Superman from ever killing.[67]

Today, Superman adheres to a strict moral code, often attributed to the Midwestern values with which he was raised. His commitment to operating within the law has been an example to many other heroes but has stirred resentment among others, who refer to him as the "big blue boy scout." Superman can be rather rigid in this trait, causing tensions in super hero community, notably with Wonder Woman (one of his closest friends) after she killed Maxwell Lord.[75]

Having lost his homeworld of Krypton, Superman is very protective of Earth, and especially of Clark Kent's family and friends. This same loss, combined with the pressure of using his powers responsibly, has caused Superman to feel lonely on Earth, despite his many friends, his wife and his parents. Previous encounters with people he thought to be fellow Kryptonians, Power Girl[76] (who is, in fact from the Krypton of the Earth-Two universe) and Mon-El,[77] have led to disappointment. The arrival of Supergirl, who has been confirmed to be not only from Krypton, but also is his cousin, has relieved this loneliness somewhat.[78]

In Superman/Batman #3 (December 2003), Batman observes, "It is a remarkable dichotomy. In many ways, Clark is the most human of us all. Then...he shoots fire from the skies, and it is difficult not to think of him as a god. And how fortunate we all are that it does not occur to him."[79] Later, as Infinite Crisis began, Batman admonished him for identifying with humanity too much and failing to provide the strong leadership that superhumans need.[80]

Alternative versions

    Main article: Alternate versions of Superman

Both the multiverse established by the publishers in the 1960s and the Elseworlds line of comics established in 1989 have allowed writers to introduce variations on Superman. These have included differences in the nationality, race and morality of the character. Alongside such re-imaginings, a number of characters have assumed the title of Superman, especially in the wake of "The Death of Superman" storyline, where four newly introduced characters are seen to claim the mantle.[81] In addition to these, the Bizarro character created in 1958 is a weird, imperfect duplicate of Superman.[82] Other members of Superman's family of characters have borne the Super- prefix, including Supergirl, Superdog and Superwoman. Outside comics published by DC, the notoriety of the Superman or "Übermensch" archetype makes the character a popular figure to be represented through an analogue in entirely unrelated continuities. For example, Roy Thomas based rival publisher Marvel Comics' Hyperion character on Superman.[83][84][85][86]

Powers and abilities

    Main article: Powers and abilities of Superman

As an influential archetype of the superhero genre, Superman possesses extraordinary powers, with the character traditionally described as "faster than a speeding bullet, more powerful than a locomotive, and able to leap tall buildings in a single bound", a phrase coined by Jay Morton and first used in the Superman radio serials and Max Fleischer animated shorts of the 1940s[87] as well as the TV series of the 1950s. For most of his existence, Superman's famous arsenal of powers has included flight, super-strength, invulnerability to non-magical attacks, super-speed, vision powers (including x-ray, heat-emitting, telescopic, infra-red, and microscopic vision), super-hearing, and super-breath, which enables him to blow out air at freezing temperatures, as well as exert the propulsive force of high-speed winds.[88]

As originally conceived and presented in his early stories, Superman's powers were relatively limited, consisting of superhuman strength that allowed him to lift a car over his head, run at amazing speeds and leap one-eighth of a mile, as well as incredibly tough skin that could be pierced by nothing less than an exploding artillery shell.[88] Siegel and Shuster compared his strength and leaping abilities to an ant and a grasshopper.[89] When making the cartoons, the Fleischer Brothers found it difficult to keep animating him leaping and requested to DC to change his ability to flying.[90] Writers gradually increased his powers to larger extents during the Silver Age, in which Superman could fly to other worlds and galaxies and even across universes with relative ease.[88] He would often fly across the solar system to stop meteors from hitting the Earth, or sometimes just to clear his head. Writers found it increasingly difficult to write Superman stories in which the character was believably challenged,[91] so DC made a series of attempts to rein the character in. The most significant attempt, John Byrne's 1986 rewrite, established several hard limits on his abilities: He barely survives a nuclear blast, and his space flights are limited by how long he can hold his breath.[92] Superman's power levels have again increased since then, with Superman currently possessing enough strength to hurl mountains, withstand nuclear blasts with ease, fly into the sun unharmed, and survive in the vacuum of outer space without oxygen.

The source of Superman's powers has changed subtly over the course of his history. It was originally stated that Superman's abilities derived from his Kryptonian heritage, which made him eons more evolved than humans.[67] This was soon amended, with the source for the powers now based upon the establishment of Krypton's gravity as having been stronger than that of the Earth. This situation mirrors that of Edgar Rice Burroughs' John Carter. As Superman's powers increased, the implication that all Kryptonians had possessed the same abilities became problematic for writers, making it doubtful that a race of such beings could have been wiped out by something as trifling as an exploding planet. In part to counter this, the Superman writers established that Kryptonians, whose native star Rao had been red, only possessed superpowers under the light of a yellow sun.[93] More recent stories have attempted to find a balance between the two explanations.

Superman is most vulnerable to green Kryptonite, mineral debris from Krypton transformed into radioactive material by the forces that destroyed the planet. Exposure to green Kryptonite radiation nullifies Superman's powers and immobilizes him with pain and nausea; prolonged exposure will eventually kill him. The only mineral on Earth that can protect him from Kryptonite is lead, which blocks the radiation. Lead is also the only known substance that Superman cannot see through with his x-ray vision. Kryptonite was first introduced to the public in 1943 as a plot device to allow the radio serial voice actor, Bud Collyer, to take some time off.[65] Although green Kryptonite is the most commonly seen form writers have introduced other forms over the years: such as red, gold, blue, white, and black, each with its own effect.[94]

Supporting cast

    Main article: Superman character and cast

Clark Kent, Superman's secret identity, was based partly on Harold Lloyd and named after Clark Gable and Kent Taylor.[95] Creators have discussed the idea of whether Superman pretends to be Clark Kent or vice versa, and at differing times in the publication either approach has been adopted.[96][97] Although typically a newspaper reporter, during the 1970s the character left the Daily Planet for a time to work for television,[97] whilst the 1980s revamp by John Byrne saw the character become somewhat more aggressive.[92] This aggressiveness has since faded with subsequent creators restoring the mild mannerisms traditional to the character.

Superman's large cast of supporting characters includes Lois Lane, perhaps the character most commonly associated with Superman, being portrayed at different times as his colleague, competitor, love interest and/or wife. Other main supporting characters include Daily Planet coworkers such as photographer Jimmy Olsen and editor Perry White, Clark Kent's adopted parents Jonathan and Martha Kent, childhood sweetheart Lana Lang and best friend Pete Ross, and former college love interest Lori Lemaris (a mermaid). Stories making reference to the possibility of Superman siring children have been featured both in and out of mainstream continuity.

Incarnations of Supergirl, Krypto the Superdog, and Superboy have also been major characters in the mythos, as well as the Justice League of America (of which Superman is usually a member). A feature shared by several supporting characters is alliterative names, especially with the initials "LL", including Lex Luthor, Lois Lane, Linda Lee, Lana Lang, Lori Lemaris and Lucy Lane,[98] alliteration being common in early comics.

Team-ups with fellow comics icon Batman are common, inspiring many stories over the years. When paired, they are often referred to as the "World's Finest" in a nod to the name of the comic book series that features many team-up stories. In 2003, DC began to publish a new series featuring the two characters titled Superman/Batman.

Superman also has a rogues gallery of enemies, including his most well-known nemesis, Lex Luthor, who has been envisioned over the years in various forms as either a rogue scientific genius with a personal vendetta against Superman, or a powerful but corrupt CEO of a conglomerate called LexCorp.[99] In the 2000s, he even becomes President of the United States,[100] and has been depicted occasionally as a former childhood friend of Clark Kent. The alien android (in most incarnations) known as Brainiac is considered by Richard George to be the second most effective enemy of Superman.[101] The enemy that accomplished the most, by actually killing Superman, is the raging monster Doomsday. Darkseid, one of the most powerful beings in the DC Universe, is also a formidable nemesis in most post-Crisis comics. Other enemies who have featured in various incarnations of the character, from comic books to film and television include the fifth-dimensional imp Mister Mxyzptlk, the reverse Superman known as Bizarro and the Kryptonian criminal General Zod.

Cultural impact

Superman has come to be seen as both an American cultural icon[102][103] and the first comic book superhero. His adventures and popularity have established the character as an inspiring force within the public eye, with the character serving as inspiration for musicians, comedians and writers alike. Kryptonite, Brainiac and Bizarro have become synonymous in popular vernacular with Achilles' heel, extreme intelligence[104] and reversed logic[105] respectively.

Inspiring a market

The character's initial success led to similar characters being created.[106][107] Batman was the first to follow, Bob Kane commenting to Vin Sullivan that given the "kind of money (Siegel and Shuster were earning) you'll have one on Monday".[108] Victor Fox, an accountant for DC, also noticed the revenue such comics generated, and commissioned Will Eisner to create a deliberately similar character to Superman. Wonder Man was published in May 1939, and although DC successfully sued, claiming plagiarism,[109] Fox had decided to cease publishing the character. Fox later had more success with the Blue Beetle. Fawcett Comics' Captain Marvel, launched in 1940, was Superman's main rival for popularity throughout the 1940s, and was again the subject of a lawsuit, which Fawcett eventually settled in 1953, a settlement which involved the cessation of the publication of the character's adventures.[110] Superhero comics are now established as the dominant genre in American comic book publishing,[111] with many thousands of characters in the tradition having been created in the years since Superman's creation.[112]

Merchandising

Superman became popular very quickly, with an additional title, Superman Quarterly rapidly added. In 1940 the character was represented in the annual Macy's parade for the first time.[113] In fact Superman had become popular to the extent that in 1942, with sales of the character's three titles standing at a combined total of over 1.5 million, Time was reporting that "the Navy Department (had) ruled that Superman comic books should be included among essential supplies destined for the Marine garrison at Midway Islands."[114] The character was soon licensed by companies keen to cash in on this success through merchandising. The earliest paraphernalia appeared in 1939, a button proclaiming membership in the Supermen of America club. By 1940 the amount of merchandise available increased dramatically, with jigsaw puzzles, paper dolls, bubble gum and trading cards available, as well as wooden or metal figures. The popularity of such merchandise increased when Superman was licensed to appear in other media, and Les Daniels has written that this represents "the start of the process that media moguls of later decades would describe as 'synergy.'"[115] By the release of Superman Returns, Warner Bros. had arranged a cross promotion with Burger King,[116] and licensed many other products for sale.

Superman's appeal to licensees rests upon the character's continuing popularity, cross market appeal and the status of the "S" shield, the stylized magenta and gold "S" emblem Superman wears on his chest, as a fashion symbol.[117][118]

The "S" shield by itself is often used in media to symbolize the Superman character. It has been incorporated into the opening and/or closing credits of several films and TV series.

In other media

    Main article: Superman in other media

The 1941 theatrical cartoon Superman, produced by the Fleischer Studios.

The character of Superman has appeared in various media aside from comic books. This is in some part seen to be owing to the character's cited standing as an American cultural icon,[119] with the concept's continued popularity also being taken into consideration,[120] but is also seen in part as due to good marketing initially.[115] The character has been developed as a vehicle for serials on radio, television and film, as well as feature length motion pictures, and computer and video games have also been developed featuring the character on multiple occasions.

The first adaptation of Superman was as a daily newspaper comic strip, launching on January 16, 1939. The strip ran until May 1966, and significantly, Siegel and Shuster used the first strips to establish Superman's backstory, adding details such as the planet Krypton and Superman's father, Jor-El, concepts not yet established in the comic books.[67] Following on from the success of this was the first radio series, The Adventures of Superman, which premiered on February 12, 1940 and featured the voice of Bud Collyer as Superman. The series ran until March, 1951. Collyer was also cast as the voice of Superman in a series of Superman animated cartoons produced by Fleischer Studios and Famous Studios for theatrical release. Seventeen shorts were produced between 1941 and 1943. By 1948 Superman was back in the movie theatres, this time in a filmed serial, Superman, with Kirk Alyn becoming the first actor to portray Superman on screen. A second serial, Atom Man vs. Superman, followed in 1950.[121]

In 1951 a television series was commissioned, Adventures of Superman starring George Reeves, with the pilot episode of the series gaining a theatrical release as Superman and the Mole Men. The series ran for a 104 episodes, from 1952–1958. The next adaptation of Superman occurred in 1966, when Superman was adapted for the stage in the Broadway musical It's a Bird...It's a Plane...It's Superman. The play wasn't successful, closing after 128 performances,[122] although a cast album recording was released.[123] However, in 1975 the play was remade for television. Superman was again animated, this time for television, in the series The New Adventures of Superman. 68 shorts were made and broadcast between 1966 and 1969. Bud Collyer again provided the voice for Superman. Then from 1973 until 1984 ABC broadcast the "Super Friends" series, this time animated by Hanna-Barbera.[124]

Superman returned to movie theatres in 1978, with director Richard Donner's Superman starring Christopher Reeve. The film spawned three sequels, Superman II (1980), Superman III (1983) and Superman IV: The Quest For Peace (1987).[125] In 1988 Superman returned to television in the Ruby Spears animated series Superman,[126] and also in Superboy, a live-action series which ran from 1988 until 1992.[127] In 1993 Lois & Clark: The New Adventures of Superman premiered on television, starring Dean Cain as Superman and Teri Hatcher as Lois Lane. The series ran until 1997. Superman: The Animated Series was produced by Warner Bros. and ran from 1996 until 2000 on The WB Television Network.[128] In 2001, the Smallville television series launched, focussing on the adventures of Clark Kent as a teenager before he dons the mantle of Superman.[129] In 2006, Bryan Singer directed Superman Returns, starring Brandon Routh as Superman.[130]

Musical references, parodies, and homages

    See also: Superman in popular music

Superman has also featured as an inspiration for musicians, with songs by numerous artists from several generations celebrating the character. Donovan's Billboard Hot 100 topping single "Sunshine Superman" utilised the character in both the title and the lyric, declaring "Superman and Green Lantern ain't got nothing on me".[131] Other tracks to reference the character include Genesis' "Land of Confusion",[132] the video to which featured a Spitting Image puppet of Ronald Reagan dressed as Superman,[133] "(Wish I Could Fly Like) Superman" by The Kinks on their 1979 album Low Budget and "Superman" by The Clique, a track later covered by R.E.M. on their 1986 album Lifes Rich Pageant. This cover is referenced by Grant Morrison in Animal Man, in which Superman meets the character, and the track comes on Animal Man's walkman immediately after.[134]

Parodies of Superman did not take long to appear, with Mighty Mouse introduced in "The Mouse of Tomorrow" animated short in 1942.[135] Whilst the character swiftly took on a life of its own, moving beyond parody, other animated characters soon took their turn to parody the character. In 1943 Bugs Bunny was featured in a short, Super-Rabbit, which sees the character gaining powers through eating fortified carrots. This short ends with Bugs stepping into a phone booth to change into a real "Superman", and emerging as a U.S. Marine.[136] In 1956 Daffy Duck assumes the mantle of "Cluck Trent" in the short "Stupor Duck", a role later reprised in various issues of the Looney Tunes comic book.[137][138] In the United Kingdom Monty Python created the character Bicycle Repairman, who fixes bicycles on a world full of Supermen, for a sketch in series of their BBC show.[139] Also on the BBC was the sit-com "My Hero", which presented Thermoman as a slightly dense Superman pastiche, attempting to save the world and pursue romantic aspirations.[140] In the United States, Saturday Night Live has often parodied the figure, with Margot Kidder reprising her role as Lois Lane in a 1979 episode.[141] Jerry Seinfeld, a noted Superman fan, filled his series Seinfeld with references to the character, and in 1997 asked for Superman to co-star with him in a commercial for American Express. The commercial aired during the 1998 NFL Playoffs and Super Bowl, Superman animated in the style of artist Curt Swan, again at the request of Seinfeld.[142]

Superman has also been used as reference point for writers, with Steven T. Seagle's graphic novel Superman: It's a Bird exploring Seagle's feelings on his own mortality as he struggles to develop a story for a Superman tale.[143] Brad Fraser used the character as a reference point for his play Poor Super Man, with The Independent noting the central character, a gay man who has lost many friends to AIDS as someone who "identifies all the more keenly with Superman's alien-amid-deceptive-lookalikes status."[144]

Literary analysis

Superman has been interpreted and discussed in many forms in the years since his debut. The character's status as the first costumed superhero has allowed him to be used in many studies discussing the genre, Umberto Eco noting that "he can be seen as the representative of all his similars".[145] Writing in Time Magazine in 1971, Gerald Clarke stated: "Superman's enormous popularity might be looked upon as signalling the beginning of the end for the Horatio Alger myth of the self-made man." Clarke viewed the comics characters as having to continuously update in order to maintain relevance, and thus representing the mood of the nation. He regarded Superman's character in the early seventies as a comment on the modern world, which he saw as a place in which "only the man with superpowers can survive and prosper."[146] Andrew Arnold, writing in the early 21st century, has noted Superman's partial role in exploring assimilation, the character's alien status allowing the reader to explore attempts to fit in on a somewhat superficial level.[147]
Clark Kent, argued by Jules Feiffer to be the most innovative feature of Superman

A.C. Grayling, writing in The Spectator, traces Superman's stances through the decades, from his 1930s campaign against crime being relevant to a nation under the influence of Al Capone, through the 1940s and World War II, a period in which Superman helped sell war bonds,[148] and into the 1950s, where Superman explored the new technological threats. Grayling notes the period after the Cold War as being one where "matters become merely personal: the task of pitting his brawn against the brains of Lex Luthor and Brainiac appeared to be independent of bigger questions", and discusses events post 9/11, stating that as a nation "caught between the terrifying George W. Bush and the terrorist Osama bin Laden, America is in earnest need of a Saviour for everything from the minor inconveniences to the major horrors of world catastrophe. And here he is, the down-home clean-cut boy in the blue tights and red cape".[149]

Scott Bukatman has discussed Superman, and the superhero in general, noting the ways in which they humanize large urban areas through their use of the space, especially in Superman's ability to soar over the large skyscrapers of Metropolis. He writes that the character "represented, in 1938, a kind of Corbusierian ideal. Superman has X-ray vision: walls become permeable, transparent. Through his benign, controlled authority, Superman renders the city open, modernist and democratic; he furthers a sense that Le Corbusier described in 1925, namely, that 'Everything is known to us'."[36]

Jules Feiffer has argued that Superman's real innovation lay in the creation of the Clark Kent persona, noting that what "made Superman extraordinary was his point of origin: Clark Kent." Feiffer develops the theme to establish Superman's popularity in simple wish fulfilment,[150] a point Siegel and Shuster themselves supported, Siegel commenting that "If you're interested in what made Superman what it is, here's one of the keys to what made it universally acceptable. Joe and I had certain inhibitions... which led to wish-fulfillment which we expressed through our interest in science fiction and our comic strip. That's where the dual-identity concept came from" and Shuster supporting that as being "why so many people could relate to it".[151]

Superman's immigrant status is a key aspect of his appeal.[152][153][154] Jeff McLaughlin saw the character as pushing the boundaries of acceptance in America. the extraterrestrial origin was seen by McLaughlin as challenging the notion that Anglo-Saxon ancestry was the source of all might.[155] Gary Engle saw the "myth of Superman [asserting] with total confidence and a childlike innocence the value of the immigrant in American culture." He argues that Superman allowed the superhero genre to take over from the Western as the expression of immigrant sensibilities. Through the use of a dual identity, Superman allowed immigrants to identify with both their cultures. Clark Kent represents the assimilated individual, allowing Superman to express the immigrants cultural heritage for the greater good.[153] Timothy Aaron Pevey has argued other aspects of the story reinforce the acceptance of the American dream. He notes that "the only thing capable of harming Superman is Kryptonite, a piece of his old home world."[35] David Jenemann has offered a contrasting view. He argues that Superman's early stories portray a threat: "the possibility that the exile would overwhelm the country."[156]

Critical reception and popularity

The character Superman and his various comic series have received various awards over the years. The Reign of the Supermen is one of many storylines or works to have received a Comics Buyer's Guide Fan Award, winning the Favorite Comic Book Story category in 1993.[157] Superman came at number 2 in VH1's Top Pop Culture Icons 2004.[158] In the same year British cinemagoers voted Superman as the greatest superhero of all time.[159] Works featuring the character have also garnered six Eisner Awards[160][161] and three Harvey Awards,[162] either for the works themselves or the creators of the works. The Superman films have, as of 2007, received a number of nominations and awards, with Christopher Reeve winning a BAFTA for his performance in Superman.[163] The Smallville television series has garnered Emmys for crew members and various other awards.[164] Superman as a character is still seen as being as relevant now as he has been in the seventy years of his existence.[165]

Notes

   1. ^ a b Daniels (1998), p. 11.
   2. ^ Holt, Douglas B. (2004). How Brands Become Icons: The Principles of Cultural Branding. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. p. 1. ISBN 1578517745.
   3. ^ Koehler, Derek J., Harvey, Nigel. (eds.), ed (2004). Blackwell Handbook of Judgment and Decision Making. Blackwell. p. 519. ISBN 1405107464.
   4. ^ Dinerstein, Joel (2003). Swinging the machine: Modernity, technology, and African American culture between the wars. University of Massachusetts Press. p. 81. ISBN 1558493832.
   5. ^ a b c d e f Daniels (1998), p. 18.
   6. ^ Wallace, Daniel; Bryan Singer (2006). The Art of Superman Returns. Chronicle Books. pp. 22. ISBN 0811853446.
  12. ^ a b Daniels (1998), p. 13.
  13. ^ Daniels (1998), p. 17.
  14. ^ a b c Jones, Gerard (2004). Men of Tomorrow: Geeks, Gangsters, and the Birth of the Comic Book. Basic Books. pp. 115. ISBN 0465036562.
  16. ^ Petrou, David Michael (1978). The Making of Superman the Movie, New York: Warner Books ISBN 0-446-82565-4
  17. ^ Daniels (1998), p. 19.
  18. ^ Morrison, Grant (29 September 1998). "Seriously, Perilously". The Herald. p. 14.
  19. ^ Engle, Gary (1987). ""What Makes Superman So Darned American?"". in Dennis Dooley and Gary Engle (eds.). Superman at Fifty: The Persistence of a Legend. Cleveland, OH: Octavia. ISBN 0020429010.
  20. ^ a b c Andrae, Nemo (online version): "Superman Through the Ages: The Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster Interview, Part 8 of 10" (1983).
  21. ^ Daniels (1998), pp. 25–31.
  23. ^ a b Daniels (1998), p. 44.
  24. ^ Fox, Gardner (w), Hibbard, Everett E. (p, i). "$1,000,000 for War Orphans" All Star Comics vol. 1, #7 (October-November 1941). All-American Publications.
  25. ^ Daniels (1998), p. 13
  26. ^ a b Daniels (1998), p. 69.
  27. ^ Eury (2006), p. 38.
  28. ^ Daniels (1995), p. 28.
  29. ^ Moore, Alan (w), Swan, Curt (p), Pérez, George & Schaffenberger, Kurt (i). Superman: Whatever Happened to the Man of Tomorrow? ({{{date}}}). DC Comics. ISBN 1-56389-315-0.
  30. ^ Daniels (1998), p. 150.
  31. ^ a b Daniels (1995), pp. 22–23.
  32. ^ a b Sabin, Roger (1996). Comics, Comix & Graphic Novels (4th paperback edition ed.). Phaidon. ISBN 0-7148-3993-0.
  35. ^ a b Pevey, Timothy Aaron ""From Superman to Superbland: The Man of Steel's Popular Decline Among Postmodern Youth"PDF (3.14 Mb). 2007-04-10 URN: etd-04172007-133407
  36. ^ a b Bukatman, Scott (2003). Matters of Gravity: Special Effects and Supermen in the 20th century. Duke University Press. ISBN 0822331322.
  38. ^ a b Jacobson, Howard (5 March 2005). "Up, up and oy vey". The Times. p. 5.
  39. ^ a b c (2006). The Mythology of Superman [DVD]. Warner Bros..
  40. ^ Weinstein, Simcha (2006). Up, Up, and Oy Vey! (1st ed.). Leviathan Press. ISBN 978-1-881927-32-7.
  41. ^ World Jewish Digest (Aug, 2006; posted online July 25, 2006): "Superman's Other Secret Identity", by Jeff Fleischer
  42. ^ "Semitic Roots." The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (2000). 4th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Retrieved on 2007-02-08.
  44. ^ Skelton, Stephen. The Gospel According to the World's Greatest Superhero. Harvest House Publishers, 2006. ISBN 0-7369-1812-4.
  45. ^ McCue, Greg S., Bloom, Clive (February 1, 1993). Dark Knights, LPC Group. ISBN 0745306632.
  47. ^ Andrae (1983), p.2.
  48. ^ Andrae (1983), p.4.
  49. ^ Andrae (1983), p.7.
  50. ^ Andrae (1983), p.5.
  52. ^ a b MacDonald, Heidi. "Inside the Superboy Copyright Decision.' PW Comics Week (April 11, 2006). Available online at Publishers Weekly, Retrieved on 2006-12-08.
  53. ^ a b Dean (2004), p. 16.
  54. ^ Dean (2004), p. 13.
  55. ^ Daniels (1998), p. 73.
  56. ^ Dean (2004), pp. 14–15.
  57. ^ a b Dean (2004), p. 17.
  60. ^ a b Ciepley, Michael. "Ruling Gives Heirs a Share of Superman Copyright" NY Times, March 29, 2008. Accessed on 2008-03-29. Archived on 2008-03-29.
  61. ^ Agency reporter, Bloomberg News, "Time Warner ordered to share Superman rights". LA Times, March 29, 2008. '"After 70 years, Jerome Siegel's heirs regain what he granted so long ago -- the copyright in the Superman material that was published in Action Comics," Larson wrote in his order Wednesday. The victory was "no small feat indeed," he said.' Accessed on 2008-03-29. Archived on 2008-03-29.
  62. ^ Coyle, Marcia. "Pow! Zap! Comic Book Suits Abound". The National Law Journal, February 4, 2008. Retrieved on 2008-02-17. Archived on 2008-02-17.
  63. ^ Dean, Michael (June 2006). "Journal Datebook: Follow-Up: Superman Heirs Reclaim Superboy Copyright". The Comics Journal (276): 37.
  66. ^ Daniels (1998), p. 67.
  67. ^ a b c d Daniels (1998), p. 42.
  68. ^ O'Neil, Dennis (w), Dillin, Dick (p), Greene, Sid (i). "Star Light, Star Bright — Death Star I See Tonight!" Justice League of America vol. 1, #73 (August, 1969). DC Comics.
  69. ^ Byrne, John (w)(p), Giordano, Dick (i). The Man of Steel Ed. Barry Marx. DC Comics, 1987. ISBN 0-930289-28-5.
  70. ^ Jurgens, Dan, Ordway, Jerry, Simonson, Louise et al (w), Jurgens, Dan, Guice, Jackson, Bogdanove, Jon, et al (p), Rodier, Denis, Janke, Dennis, Breeding, Brett et al (i). The Death of Superman Ed. Mike Carlin. NY:DC Comics, April 14, 1993. ISBN 1-56389-097-6.
  71. ^ Jurgens, Dan, Kesel, Karl, Simonson, Louise et al (w), Jurgens, Dan, Guice, Jackson, Bogdanove, Jon, et al (p), Rodier, Denis, Janke, Dennis, Breeding, Brett et al (i). The Return of Superman (Reign of the Supermen) Ed. Mike Carlin. NY:DC Comics, September 3, 1993. ISBN 1-56389-149-2.
  72. ^ Waid, Mark (w), Yu, Leinil Francis (a). Superman: Birthright. NY:DC Comics, October 1, 2005. ISBN 1-4012-0252-7.
  73. ^ Johns, Geoff (w), Jimenez, Phil, Pérez, George, Ordway, Jerry et al (a). Infinite Crisis. NY:DC Comics, September 20, 2006. ISBN 1401209599 ISBN 978-1401209599
  74. ^ Johns, Geoff, Busiek, Kurt (w), Woods, Peter, Guedes, Renato (a). Superman: Up, Up and Away! NY:DC Comics, 2006. ISBN 1401209548 ISBN 978-1401209544.
  75. ^ Rucka, Greg (w), Lopez, David (p). "Affirmative Defense" Wonder Woman vol. 2, #220 (October 2005). DC Comics.
  76. ^ Johns, Geoff (w), Conner, Amanda (p), Palmiotti, Jimmy (i). "Power Trip" JSA: Classified vol. 1, #1 (September 2005). DC Comics.
  77. ^ Johns, Geoff Donner, Richard (w), Wight, Eric (p), Wight, Eric (i). "Who is Clark Kent's Big Brother?" Action Comics Annual vol. 1, #10 (March 2007). DC Comics.
  78. ^ Buskiek, Kurt, Nicieza, Fabian, Johns, Geoff (w), Guedes, Renato (p), Magalhaes, Jose Wilson (i). "Superman: Family" Action Comics vol. 1, #850 (July 2007). DC Comics.
  79. ^ Loeb, Jeph (w), McGuinness, Ed (p), Vines, Dexter (i). "Running Wild" Superman/Batman vol. 1, #3 (December 2003). DC Comics.
  80. ^ Johns, Geoff (w), Jimenez, Phil (p), Lanning, Andy (i). "Infinite Crisis" Infinite Crisis vol. 1, #1 (December 2005). DC Comics.
  81. ^ Jurgens et al. The Return of Superman (1993).
  82. ^ Dooley, Dennis and Engle, Gary D. Superman at Fifty! (1988)
  83. ^ Interview with Roy Thomas and Jerry Bails in The Justice League Companion (2003) pp. 72–73
  86. ^ Thomas, Roy. Bails, Jerry. The Justice League Companion (2003) pp. 72–73. (Roy Thomas discusses the creation of Squadron Supreme, his Justice League parody.
  88. ^ a b c Daniels (1995), p. 80.
  89. ^ Siegel, Jerry (w), Shuster, Joe (p, i). "A Scientific Explanation of Superman's Amazing Strength--!" Superman vol. 1, #1 (Summer 1939). National Periodical Publications.
  90. ^ Cabarga, Leslie, Beck, Jerry, Fleischer, Richard (Interviewees). (2006). "First Flight: The Fleischer Superman Series" (supplementary DVD documentary). Superman II (Two-Disc Special Edition) [DVD]. Warner Bros..
  91. ^ Daniels (1998), p. 133.
  92. ^ a b Sanderson, Peter (June 1986). "The End of History". Amazing Heroes (96). ISSN 0745-6506.
  94. ^ Daniels (1998), pp. 106–107.
  97. ^ a b Eury (2006), p. 119.
  98. ^ . "Superman's LL's [Text page]" Superman #204 (February, 1968). DC Comics.
  99. ^ Daniels (1998), p. 160.
 100. ^ , DeMatteis, J.M., Kelly, Joe, Loeb, Jeph et al (w), McGuinness, Ed, Rouleau, Duncan, Medina, Paco (a). Superman: President Lex, NY:DC Comics, July 1, 2003. ISBN 1563899744, ISBN 978-1563899744
 102. ^ Magnussen, Anne; Hans-Christian Christiansen (2000). Comics & Culture: Analytical and Theoretical Approaches to Comics. Museum Tusculanum Press. ISBN 8772895802. "a metaphor and cultural icon for the 21st century"
 103. ^ Postmes, Tom; Jolanda Jetten (2006). Individuality and the Group: Advances in Social Identity. Sage Publications. ISBN 1412903211. "American cultural icons (e.g., the American Flag, Superman, the Statue of Liberty)"
 104. ^ Soanes, C. and Stevenson, A. 2004. Electronic version of The Concise Oxford English Dictionary. Eleventh Edition. England: Oxford University Press.
 105. ^ Bizarro reference Reference to Bizzaro logic in FCC pleading.
 106. ^ Eury (2006), p. 116: "since Superman inspired so many different super-heroes".
 107. ^ Hatfield, Charles. Alternative Comics: an emerging literature. University Press of Mississippi. p. 10. ISBN 1578067197. "the various Superman-inspired "costume" comics"
 108. ^ Daniels (1995), p. 34.
 110. ^ Daniels (1995), pp. 46–47.
 112. ^ South Carolina PACT Coach, English Language Arts Grade 5. Triumph Learning. 2006. ISBN 1598230778.
 113. ^ Staff writer. "Superman Struts In Macy Parade". New York Times, November 22, 1940. p.18
 115. ^ a b Daniels (1998), p. 50.
 121. ^ Daniels (1998), pp. 75–76.
 122. ^ Daniels (1998), p. 111.
 124. ^ Daniels (1998), pp. 111–115
 125. ^ Daniels (1998), pp. 141–143
 127. ^ Daniels (1998), pp. 164–165.
 128. ^ Daniels (1998), pp. 172–174.
 131. ^ Donovan. "Sunshine Superman." Sunshine Superman. Epic, 1966.
 132. ^ Genesis. "Land of Confusion." Invisible Touch. Atlantic Records, 1986. "Ooh Superman where are you now, When everything's gone wrong somehow"
 133. ^ Lloyd, John & Yukich, Jim (Directors). (1986). "Land of Confusion" [Music video]. Atlantic Records.
 134. ^ Morrison (w), Grant; Truog, Chas, Hazlewood, Doug and Grummet, Tom (a). "2: Life In The Concrete Jungle". in Michael Charles Hill (ed.). Animal Man. John Costanza (letterer) & Tatjana Wood (colorist) (1st edition ed.). New York: DC Comics. p. 45. ISBN 1-56389-005-4. "R.E.M. starts singing "Superman." My arm aches and I've got déjà vu. Funny how everything comes together."
 135. ^ Turner, Robin (8 August 2006). "Deputy Dawg". Western Mail (Western Mail and Echo Ltd): p. 21.
 139. ^ Clarke, Mel (1 August 2004). "The Pitch". The Sunday Times (Times Newspapers Ltd): p. 34.
 140. ^ Kinnes, Sally (30 January 2000). "The One To Watch". The Sunday Times (Times Newspapers Ltd): p. 58.
 142. ^ Daniels (1998), p. 185.
 144. ^ Taylor, Paul (21 September 1994). "Theatre". The Independent (Independent News & Media).
 145. ^ Eco, Umberto (2004). "The Myth of Superman". in Jeet Heer & Kent Worcester. Arguing Comics. University Press of Mississippi. p. 162. ISBN 1-57806-687-5.
 148. ^ Daniels (1995), p. 64.
 150. ^ Jules Feiffer The Great Comic Book Heroes, (2003). Fantagraphics. ISBN 1-56097-501-6
 151. ^ Andrae (1983), p.10.
 152. ^ Fingeroth, Danny Superman on the Couch (2004). Continuum International Publishing Group p53. ISBN 0826415393
 153. ^ a b Engle, Gary "What Makes Superman So Darned American?" reprinted in Popular Culture (1992) Popular Press p331-343. ISBN 0879725729
 154. ^ Wallace, Daniel; Bryan Singer (2006). The Art of Superman Returns. Chronicle Books. pp. 92. ISBN 0811853446.
 155. ^ McLaughlin, Jeff "Comics as Philosophy" (2005). Univ of Mississippi Press p92. ISBN 1578067944
 156. ^ Jenemann, David (2007). Adorno in America. U of Minnesota Press. pp. 180. ISBN 0816648093.
 165. ^ Wright, B. W. (2001). "Spider-Man at Ground Zero". Comic Book Nation: The Transformation of Youth Culture in America. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University. p. 293. ISBN 0801874505.

References

    * Andrae, Tom; Blum, Geoffry & Coddington, Gary (August 1983). "Of Superman and Kids With Dreams". Nemo, the Classic Comics Library (2): 6–19. ISSN 07469438.
    * Daniels, Les (1998). Superman: The Complete History (1st edition ed.). Titan Books. ISBN 1-85286-988-7.
    * Daniels, Les (1995). DC Comics: Sixty Years of the World's Favourite Comic Book Heroes (First ed.). Virgin Books. ISBN 1-85227-546-4.
    * Eury, Michael; Adams, Neal, Swan, Curt et al. . The Krypton Companion. TwoMorrows Publishing. ISBN 1893905616.
    * Superman at the Comic Book DB
    * Superman at the Grand Comic-Book Database
    * Superman at the Big Comic Book DataBase
    * Superman at the Internet Movie Database

External links
Sister project  Look up Superman in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Sister project  Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Superman
Sister project  Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Superman

    * Official Superman website
    * Golden Age, Silver Age and Modern Age Superman at the Comic book database
    * Superman Homepage
    * Superman Database
    * Alan Kistler's Superman Files
    * Superman at the Open Directory Project


[hide]
v • d • e
Superman
Creators 
Jerome "Jerry" Siegel · Joseph "Joe" Shuster
Superman Family 
Superman (Clark Kent) · Superboy (Kal-El; Kon-El) · Supergirl (Kara Zor-El; Matrix; Linda Danvers; Cir-El) · Power Girl · Steel · Krypto · Eradicator
Supporting Characters 
Bibbo Bibbowski · Cat Grant · Chris Kent · Jimmy Olsen · Jor-El · Lana Lang · Lara · Lois Lane · Ma and Pa Kent · Maxima · Perry White · Pete Ross · Ron Troupe · Steve Lombard
Villains 
Atlas · Atomic Skull · Bizarro · Bloodsport · Brainiac · Composite Superman · Conduit · Darkseid · Doomsday · Faora · General Zod · Gog · Hank Henshaw · Imperiex · Intergang · Jax-Ur · Kryptonite Man · Lex Luthor · Livewire · Lobo · Metallo · Mongul · Morgan Edge · Mr. Mxyzptlk · Parasite · Prankster · Silver Banshee · Solomon Grundy · Superboy-Prime · Titano · Toyman · Ultra-Humanite · Ultraman
Locations 
Daily Planet · Fortress of Solitude · Krypton · Metropolis · Phantom Zone · Smallville
History and themes 
Origin · History of Superman · Symbol · Powers · Kryptonite · Character and cast · Relationship of Clark Kent and Lois Lane
Publications 
Current: Action Comics · Superman · Superman/Batman
Former: Adventure Comics · All Star Superman · DC Comics Presents · Superman (vol. 2) · Superman: The Man of Steel · World's Finest Comics
Miscellanea 
Storylines · Alternate versions · Superman in other media · Superman (film series) · Smallville



Superman
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Superman - manden af stål
Superman
Dansk navn  Superman
Udgiver  DC Comics
Første optræden  "Action Comics" #1 (1938)
Første danske optræden  Superman gjorde sin entre i Danmark i ugebladet Familie-Journalen nr.39/1940.
Skabt af  Jerry Siegel
Joe Shuster
Data
Civile identitet  Clark Joseph Kent (født Kal-El)
Status  Aktiv
Tilknytning  Justice League of America
Tidligere tilknytninger  The Legion of Superheroes
Kendte alias  Kryptons sidste søn, Manden af stål
Kendte slægtninge  Lois Lane (kone), Jor-El (fader, afdød), Lara (moder, afdød), Jonathan Kent (adoptivfar, afdød), Martha Kent (adoptivmor, afdød), Seyg-El (farfar, afdød), Zor-el (onkel, afdød), Alura (tante, afdød), Kara Zor-El (Supergirl, kusine), Superboy (Kon-El/Conner Kent, klon delvist baseret på Supermans DNA)
Evner/Kræfter  flyveegenskaber, usårlighed, superånde, superhørelse, superfart, superstyrke, røntgensyn, mikroskopsyn, infrarødt syn, varmesyn

Superman (engelsk for overmenneske) er en amerikansk tegneseriefigur fra det amerikanske forlag DC Comics. Han optrådte første gang i bladet Action Comics nr. 1 i 1938 og betragtes generelt som den første figur med de egenskaber, der kendetegner den moderne superhelt.

Figuren blev skabt af Joe Shuster og Jerry Siegel for forlaget National Comics (det nuværende DC Comics), og har efterfølgende optrådt i diverse radioføljetoner, tvserier, film, og videospil.

Superman blev født som Kal-El på planeten Krypton. Som spæd blev han af sin far Jor-El sendt til jorden i en raket, få øjeblikke før Krypton eksploderede. Raketten landede uden for byen Smallville, hvor Kal-El blev opdaget og adopteret af det barnløse ægtepar Jonathan og Martha Kent, der gav ham navnet Clark Kent. Efterhånden som han voksede op, opdagede han sine overmenneskelige kræfter og besluttede sig for at bruge dem til at hjælpe andre. Ved at optræde i et kostume holder han sin identitet som Clark Kent hemmelig. Som voksen flyttede Superman til storbyen Metropolis, hvor han i sin hemmelige identitet arbejder som journalist på avisen Daily Planet sammen med Lois Lane, som han gennem tiden har haft et romantisk forhold til. I den nuværende udgave af serien er Lois og Clark gift.

I Danmark udgives Superman for tiden af Egmont Serieforlaget.


Fiktiv person 



Superman ist der Name einer Comicfigur, die in den 1930er-Jahren von den beiden US-Amerikanern Jerry Siegel und Joe Shuster geschaffen wurde.

Die Figur wird gemeinhin als der erste Superheld der Comicgeschichte betrachtet und zählt zu dem Kreis der fiktiven Charaktere mit dem weltweit höchsten Wiedererkennungswert.[1]
Inhaltsverzeichnis
[Verbergen]

    * 1 Figurenhistorie
          o 1.1 Entstehung der Figur
                + 1.1.1 Einflüsse und Vorbilder
          o 1.2 Die Superman-Comics
          o 1.3 Geschichte der Figur
                + 1.3.1 Zeitliche Einteilung der Comics
                + 1.3.2 Herkunftsgeschichte
          o 1.4 Superman und Propaganda-Material
    * 2 Übermenschliche Eigenschaften
          o 2.1 Kräfte und Fähigkeiten
          o 2.2 Schwächen
    * 3 Supermans Kostüm im Wandel der Zeiten
    * 4 In den Medien
          o 4.1 Überblick
          o 4.2 Film und Fernsehen
                + 4.2.1 Kino-Realverfilmungen in Farbe
                + 4.2.2 Fernsehserien
          o 4.3 Parodien
          o 4.4 Videospiele
    * 5 Begleitfiguren und Gegner
    * 6 Quellen
    * 7 Siehe auch
    * 8 Literatur
    * 9 Weblinks

Figurenhistorie [Bearbeiten]

Entstehung der Figur [Bearbeiten]

Die Idee und das ursprüngliche Konzept für Superman wurde in den frühen 1930er-Jahren von den beiden amerikanischen Teenagern Jerry Siegel und Joe Shuster entwickelt. 1932 begannen Siegel und Shuster, zwei begeisterte Science-Fiction-Fans, die sich während ihrer gemeinsamen Schulzeit in Cleveland, Ohio, kennengelernt hatten, in ihrer Freizeit ein selbstgestaltetes Laienmagazin herauszugeben. In diesem Organ, das sie kurz Science Fiction nannten, veröffentlichten sie selbst verfasste Geschichten in ihrem Lieblingsgenre. Während Siegel als Autor fungierte, verlagerte Shuster sich darauf, Bildmaterial zur Illustration von Siegels Geschichten zu zeichnen.

In der 1933 fertiggestellten ersten Ausgabe von Science Fiction platzierten die beiden unter anderem eine Kurzgeschichte mit dem Titel „The Reign of the Super-Man". Diese handelte von einem glatzköpfigen Bösewicht, der plant, mit Hilfe seiner übermenschlichen mentalen Fähigkeiten (Telepathie, Telekinese etc.) die Herrschaft über die Menschheit zu erreichen.

In den folgenden Jahren unterzogen Siegel und Shuster ihre Idee schließlich einer Generalrevision: Zum einen entschieden sie, ihre Figur von einem Schurken zu einem „Kämpfer für das Gute" zu machen und zum anderen ersetzten sie seine mentalen „Superkräfte" durch physische Fähigkeiten, in der Annahme, dass diese ein größeres Erzählpotential besitzen würden und sich außerdem optisch eindrucksvoller in Szene setzen lassen würden.

Mit ihrem veränderten Konzept versuchten Siegel und Shuster in den Jahren 1934 bis 1938 verschiedene Zeitungshäuser dazu zu bringen, die Figur als Zeitungs-Comicstrip zu veröffentlichen. Nachdem diese Versuche nicht fruchteten, versuchten die beiden, verschiedene Verlage, die zu dieser Zeit in Amerika das neue Medium des Comicheftes auf dem Markt zu etablieren begannen, von ihrer Idee zu überzeugen. Ihren Bemühungen waren dabei zunächst jahrelang nur Misserfolg beschieden: Ein Verlag nach dem anderen lehnte die Veröffentlichung von Geschichten um die Superman-Figur ab, da diese „unreif", „pubertär" und „kindisch" sei, und keine Aussichten auf Erfolg hätte. Erst der Verlag National Publications fand sich im Frühjahr 1938 bereit, Siegels und Shusters Superman eine Chance zu geben. Nachdem der Verlag die Idee in den vorherigen Jahren mehrmals abgelehnt hatte, sah er sich durch zwei Gründe veranlasst, das Konzept zu testen. Zum einen waren andere Konzepte für Comicreihen aus der Werkstatt von Siegel und Shuster, die National Publications in sein Programm genommen hatte – so die in den Detective Comics erscheinenden Abenteuer um den geheimnisvollen Doctor Occult – leidlich erfolgreich gewesen. Ein noch wichtigerer Anlass für den Verlag, auf das Superman-Konzept zurückzugreifen, dürfte der Zeitdruck gewesen sein, dem man sich bei der Vorbereitung der ersten Ausgaben der Action Comics ausgesetzt sah: Obwohl der Start der Serie kurz bevor stand, hatte man nicht genug Material um alle Seiten der Hefte füllen zu können.

Nachdem Action Comics #1 zu einem phänomenalen Verkaufserfolg wurde, stellte National Publications Marktstudien an, um die Gründe für den Erfolg des Heftes zu ergründen. Zur Überraschung aller Beteiligten wurde festgestellt, dass die neuartige Figur Supermans, der das Titelbild des Heftes geziert hatte, der Hauptgrund für den reißenden Absatz des Heftes war. National Publications machte die Superman-Geschichten daraufhin zu einem festen Bestandteil der Action Comics, in denen sie fortan in jeder Ausgabe und als „Hauptfeature" erschienen, das heißt als vorrangige Reihe gegenüber den anderen im hinteren Teil der Hefte abgedruckten Reihen mit anderen Figuren.

Siegel und Shuster fuhren fort, die Superman-Geschichten gemeinsam mit einem wachsenden Mitarbeiterstab bis in die 1940er Jahre zu gestalten. Die Rechte an ihrer Schöpfung traten sie für einen Scheck über 130 Dollar an den Verlag ab.[2] Später wurde dies zum Anlass eines langjährigen Rechtsstreites, durch den Siegel und Shuster die Rechte an ihrer Figur zurückzugewinnen versuchten. Erst 1978 gewährte Time Warner, der Besitzer von DC-Comics, dem Verlag, in dem die National Publications später aufgingen, den beiden eine jährliche Rente von 24.000 Dollar und nannte die Namen der beiden als Schöpfer der Figur in den Initial-Credits jeder Superman-Geschichte.

In den Vereinigten Staaten lag die Auflage der Action Comics 1940 bereits bei 800.000 Ausgaben, während man durch die dreimonatlich erscheinenden Superman-Hefte mit jeder neuen Ausgabe mehr als eineinviertel Millionen Exemplare absetzen konnte.[3] Unter den in Übersee kämpfenden G.I.s waren die verschiedenen Superman-Comicserien während der Kriegsjahre die am häufigsten gelesenen Periodika.[4] Hinzu kamen Superman-Comistrips in mehr als 250 Sonntagszeitungen sowie eine dreimal pro Woche ausgestrahlte Superman-Radiosendung und, ab 1941, eine von den Fleischer Studios produzierte Reihe von Zeichentrickfilmen.

Auch außerhalb von Amerika wurde Superman binnen kurzer Zeit zu einem Verkaufsschlager: Von den englischsprachigen Ländern ausgehend fanden die Superman-Comics bald auf der ganzen Welt ihr Publikum. So waren Superman-Comics sogar im fernen Japan bereits in den frühen 1940er-Jahren erhältlich, wo unter anderem der japanische Kaiser Hirohito zu den begeisterten Lesern der Abenteuer des All American Heroes gehörte.[5]

In Deutschland war die Veröffentlichung der Superman-Comics zunächst auf Veranlassung des nationalsozialistischen Regimes untersagt. Propagandaminister Joseph Goebbels, dem die Kontrolle oblag, welche Druckerzeugnisse damals in Deutschland erscheinen durften, brachte mit dem Ausruf „Superman ist ein Jude!" in einer Reichstagssitzung des Jahres 1942 unmissverständlich zum Ausdruck, was das Regime von dem amerikanischen Superhelden dachte.[6] Nach einer nach nur drei Heften eingestellten Superman-Serie in den 1950er-Jahren, die den Titel Supermann trug, erscheinen die Geschichten um Superman hierzulande seit 1966 nahezu ohne Unterbrechungen.

Während des Kalten Krieges wurde Superman erneut zur Symbolfigur der amerikanischen Werte und Lebensart. Diesmal als Exponent der „freien Welt" des amerikanischen Einflussbereiches im Gegensatz zur „unfreien Welt" der Sowjetunion und ihrer Satellitenstaaten. Obwohl die Superman-Comics im Gebiet des Warschauer Paktes nicht offiziell erscheinen durften – der Generalsekretär der KPdSU, Nikita Chruschtschow, erklärte hierzu gegenüber dem Superman-Chefredakteur Mort Weisinger während eines Besuchs Weisingers in Moskau „Auch der Mann aus Stahl ist nicht in der Lage, den Eisernen Vorhang zu durchbrechen"[7] – zirkulierten die Superman-Comics im „Osten" in großer Zahl durch private Verbreitung unter der Hand.

Einflüsse und Vorbilder [Bearbeiten]

Für das Erscheinungsbild und den Charakter ihres Helden griffen Siegel und Shuster auf eine Vielzahl fiktiver Figuren und realer Personen zurück.

Einflüsse für den eigentlichen Superman waren Hugo Danner, der mit gewaltigen physischen Fähigkeiten ausgestattete Held aus Philip Gordon Wylies Roman Gladiator aus dem Jahr 1930, sowie der Schauspieler Douglas Fairbanks, an dessen dynamisch-akrobatischen Leindwandauftritten als Freibeuter, Musketier u.ä. mehr sich Shuster bei der Gestaltung von Supermans „Himmelsturnereien" orientierte.[8]

Zu den weiteren Inspirationen, die weniger direkt in Superman einflossen, zählten die Hauptfiguren von abenteuerlichen Groschenheften wie Edgar Rice Burroughs' Tarzan und Johnston McCulleys Zorro, bei dem die Idee der Doppelidentität mit entlehnt wurde: Wie der junge Don Diego in den Zorro-Geschichten bei Tag den sanftmütigen Don Diego gibt und bei Nacht zu Zorro, dem feurigen Kämpfer für das Gute wird, ließen Siegel und Shuster Superman ein Doppelleben als introvertierter Zeitungsreporter Clark Kent einerseits und als verwegener Streiter für Recht und Gerechtigkeit in Gestalt des Superman führen. Das Erscheinungsbild von Supermans Alter Ego als bebrillter Softie-Reporter empfanden Siegel und Shuster – beide selbst Brillenträger – dabei einerseits sich selbst und andererseits einigen Auftritten von Harold Lloyd in einigen seiner Filme aus den 1920er Jahren nach, in denen dieser schlacksig und mit dicken Brillengestellen den Über-Weichling mimt.[9] Den Namen Clark Kent setzten die beiden wiederum aus den Vornamen der Schauspieler Clark Gable und Kent Taylor zusammen.

„Superman" ist die gängige englische Übersetzung des deutschen Wortes „Übermensch". Es ist nicht klar, ob den Schöpfern der Superman-Figur Nietzsches Ideen vom Übermenschen bekannt waren und wie weit sie davon – direkt oder indirekt – beeinflusst wurden.

Die Superman-Comics [Bearbeiten]

Im Anschluss an den gewaltigen Erfolg der ersten Superman-Geschichte in Action Comics #1 wurden die Geschichten um den „Mann aus Stahl" zum Hauptinhalt der Serie. Andere Features wie „Zatara the Magician" oder „Congo Bill" traten dem gegenüber in den Hintergrund, was sich unter anderem darin widerspiegelt, dass Superman praktisch ausnahmslos alle Titelbilder der Serie für sich vereinnahmen konnte. Seit den 1950er-Jahren sind die Superman-Geschichten, abgesehen von gelegentlichen „Backup-Reihen" um andere Figuren, die in unregelmäßigen Abständen einmal kurzzeitig in die Serie eingebaut werden, der einzige permanente Inhalt der Serie. Mit einer mehr als siebzigjährigen Veröffentlichungsgeschichte sind die Action Comics mittlerweile die am längsten kontinuierlich erscheinende Comicserie weltweit. Mit einer Ausgabenzahl, die sich der Heftnummer #900 annähert, besitzt die Serie zudem den zweithöchsten Nummernstand einer Comicserie überhaupt.

Bereits 1939 begann National Publications/DC zudem damit sein Superman-Programm kontinuierlich auszubauen: Mit dem Start der eponymen Serie Superman begann eine lange Reihe weiterer Veröffentlichungen beziehungsweise Veröffentlichungsformate um Siegel und Shusters Superhelden. Spätere Serien waren und sind unter anderem World's Finest Comics (gemeinsame Geschichten von Superman mit seinem dunklen Epigonen Batman), Superman: Man of Steel, Adventure Comics (mit Geschichten um Supermans jugendliches Ich Superboy), sowie die Spin-Off-Serien Steel, Supergirl und Superboy, die Figuren in den Mittelpunkt stellen, die ursprünglich als Nebenfiguren von Superman in dessen Comics eingeführt worden waren. Eine Übersicht über alle Superman-Serien findet sich unter Superman (Comicserien).

Der Erfolg Supermans zog eine ganze Reihe von weiteren Superhelden nach sich: 1939 „Batman"; 1940 Flash, Green Lantern, 1941 „Wonder Woman". Der Konkurrenzverlag „Timely", (später Marvel) schuf die Superhelden „Captain America", die „menschliche Fackel" (Englisch: Human Torch), „Namor" (Englisch: Namor the Sub-Mariner) und „Captain Marvel". Während des Zweiten Weltkrieges gab es insgesamt 160 verschiedene Superheldentitel von mehr als zwei Dutzend Verlagen, mit einer Gesamtauflage von 300 Millionen Heften und einem jährlichen Umsatz von 30 Millionen Dollar.

Geschichte der Figur [Bearbeiten]

Zeitliche Einteilung der Comics [Bearbeiten]

Seit der Entstehung gab es verschiedene Inkarnationen der Figur. Die Comics werden in so genannte „Ages" (englisch für: Zeitalter) eingeteilt:

    * Golden Age
    * Silver Age
    * Bronze Age
    * Modern Age

Das wichtigste Ereignis in der Superman-Geschichte stellt die Crisis on Infinite Earths dar, die den Helden grundlegend veränderte. Man unterscheidet daher auch oft Darstellungen pre-crisis (vor der Krise) und post-crisis (nach der Krise).

Anfang der Vierziger Jahre wurde das Comic „World's Finest" publiziert, das getrennte Geschichten von verschiedenen Helden enthielt - dabei immer auch Geschichten von Superman und von Batman, den Hauptfiguren des DC-Comic-Verlages. Die Superheldenkrise der 1950er-Jahre führte zu einer Kürzung der Ausgaben und dazu, Superman und Batman in einer einzigen, gemeinsamen Geschichte auftreten zu lassen. Von da an begann die Vorstellung bei DC, dass alle ihre Helden in einem gemeinsamen Universum existieren. Die Comic-Reihe wurde bis zum Jahr 1986 fortgeführt.

In den Sechziger Jahren wurde Superman Gründungsmitglied der Gerechtigkeitsliga (auch: Liga der Gerechten; Original: Justice League), einer Gruppe von Superhelden, zu denen unter anderem auch Wonder Woman, Batman und der Flash gehören.

Mitte der Achtziger Jahre erfuhr die Figur des Superman, neben vielen anderen, eine grundlegende Änderung. Auslöser war ein Umdenken des herausgebenden Verlages DC Comics, welches sich in einer Miniserie bzw. eines Ereignisses namens „Krise der Parallelerden" manifestierte. Zu diesem Zeitpunkt gab es in der DC-Welt mehrere unterschiedliche Paralleluniversen, mit denen Unterschiede zwischen den alten und der damals aktuellen Version von Superman, aber auch anderen Figuren, erklärt werden sollten. Obwohl seit Jahren praktisch alle Geschichten in einem Universum - Erde 1 genannt - stattfanden und es nur gelegentliche Ausflüge nach Erde 2 (Superheldenzeit begann früher) oder Erde 3 (moralische Inversion, Superhelden sind dort böse, Lex Luthor gut) gab, wurde die Lage als zu kompliziert für die Leser empfunden und bereinigt.

Die Herkunft von vielen DC-Helden, wie beispielsweise die grüne Laterne (Green Lantern) oder Aquaman, wurden umgeschrieben und zusammengeführt. Andere Charaktere wie Supergirl ließ man einfach sterben. [10]

Viele Änderungen hatten aber unbedachte Auswirkungen, die in mehreren, serienüberspannenden Geschichten korrigiert werden sollten. Dieser Prozess ist noch nicht abgeschlossen, derzeit nähert sich Superman samt assoziierter Figuren und Titel wieder der Vor-Krisen-Version an.

Herkunftsgeschichte [Bearbeiten]
Superman-Kostüm

Supermans Herkunftsgeschichte wurde im Laufe der Jahre immer wieder verändert, bleibt im Kern aber die folgende:

Der auf dem fernen Planeten Krypton lebende Wissenschaftler Jor-El entdeckt, dass die Zivilisation der Kryptonier durch eine nahende Katastrophe dem Untergang geweiht ist.

Um seinen dreijährigen Sohn Kal-El zu retten, schickt er ihn in einer Rakete zur Erde. Das Raumschiff landet dort im amerikanischen Bundesstaat Kansas, am Stadtrand Smallvilles. Der Junge wird von dem kinderlosen Farmer-Ehepaar Kent gefunden, die ihm den Namen Clark geben und als ihren eigenen Sohn großziehen.

Schon bald erkennt er seine besonderen Kräfte, nach seiner Schulzeit bereist er die Welt und entschließt sich, das Verbrechen zu bekämpfen. So entsteht seine zweite Identität: Superman, der Mann aus Stahl. Superman kann fliegen (bis 1950 nur besonders hoch und weit springen), ist stark wie eine Lokomotive, schneller als eine Pistolenkugel und nahezu unverwundbar.

Im Alltag arbeitet er für den Daily Planet, die wichtigste Zeitung seiner Heimatstadt Metropolis (Synonym für „die Großstadt"), was ihm die Möglichkeit bietet, gleich an Ort und Stelle zu sein, wenn er gebraucht wird. Ebenso berühmt wie der Mann aus Stahl selbst, ist seine Kollegin beim Daily Planet, Lois Lane, die ihn zwar anhimmelt, aber von seinem vermeintlich tollpatschigen Alter Ego Clark Kent nichts wissen will.

Superman und Propaganda-Material [Bearbeiten]

Superman als Ikone der Popkultur wurde immer wieder für Propaganda-Zwecke benutzt, vor allem im Zweiten Weltkrieg gegen Deutschland und Japan und im Kalten Krieg gegen die Sowjetunion. In verschiedenen Comics kämpfte Superman neben seinen Landsmännern den Alliierten gegen japanische Flugzeuge oder ergriff Adolf Hitler direkt am Schlafittchen, um ihn vor Gericht zu stellen. Die Comics wurden sogar an die Front geliefert.

Im Kalten Krieg wurde die Haltung der Comic-Produzenten auf subtilere Weise sichtbar, indem sich Superman in die Flagge der Vereinigten Staaten hüllte, sie des Öfteren auf den Covern der Comics mit sich führte oder sogar den berühmten Adler auf seinen Schultern trug. Damit symbolisierte er eine stark patriotische Haltung der Figur, die für viele nicht mehr wegzudenken ist. Nicht zuletzt des Ausspruchs „Truth, Justice and the American Way" wegen, der zuerst Ende der vierziger Jahre aufkam und vor allem seit der Fernsehsendung mit George Reeves großen Zuspruch in den Vereinigten Staaten fand.

Der „American Way" hat in anderen Sprachen keine Äquivalent, deshalb gehen eventuelle patriotische Aussagen in der Übersetzung mit den Worten „Menschenwürde" oder „friedliches Zusammenleben" schnell verloren.

Im Film „Superman Returns ging Regisseur Bryan Singer von der Tatsache aus, dass Superman in der ganzen Welt bekannt ist und geschätzt wird. Außerdem habe keine Nation auf ihn, als außerirdischen Einwanderer, Ansprüche. Der Charakter an sich sei nicht patriotisch veranlagt, weil er in seiner Fähigkeit, Orte auf der ganzen Welt in Sekundenschnelle zu erreichen, ein viel kleineres Bild unseres Planeten hat, als eine Welt. In der Serie Smallville wird deutlich, dass Clark Kent seine Farm mehr liebt, als seinen alten Heimatplaneten.

Übermenschliche Eigenschaften [Bearbeiten]

Kräfte und Fähigkeiten [Bearbeiten]

Seine übermenschlichen Kräfte werden dadurch erklärt, dass sein Körper unter unserer gelben Sonne (im Gegensatz zur roten Sonne Kryptons) mit Energie aufgeladen wird. Dies sollte an seiner extrem dichten Molekularstruktur liegen. Auch war die Schwerkraft auf Krypton sehr viel höher als auf der Erde. Jeder Kryptonier (oder Bewohner eines ähnlichen Planeten) hat damit auf der Erde dieselben (oder ähnliche) Fähigkeiten. Diese wurden oft verändert, bleiben im Kern aber folgende:

    * enorme Schnelligkeit („Faster than a speeding bullet")
    * übermenschliche Stärke („More powerful than a locomotive")
    * die Fähigkeit zu fliegen (ursprünglich konnte er lediglich sehr weit bzw. hoch springen: „Able to leap tall buildings in a single bound")
    * Unverwundbarkeit
    * Supergehör - auch sehr entfernte/sehr leise Geräusche werden wahrgenommen, ebenso besonders hohe und tiefe Frequenzen
    * Hitzeblick - mit Laserstrahlen aus der Science Fiction vergleichbar.
    * Röntgenblick, mit dem er durch alles außer durch Blei blicken kann
    * Mikroskopblick - selbst einzelne Atome können von Superman gesehen werden
    * Teleskopblick - extrem weites Sichtfeld, in einigen Versionen bis in den interstellaren Bereich
    * Superatem- extrem hohes Lungenvolumen

Durch das Kombinieren verschiedener Eigenschaften ergeben sich weitere Superkräfte, wie etwa eine „Superpuste", bei der teilweise riesige Luftmengen eingeatmet, verdichtet und dann wieder kontrolliert ausgeatmet werden, so, dass der entstehende Luftstrom zur Kühlung bis hinab zu extrem niedrigen Temperaturen genutzt werden kann.

Außerdem dient diese komprimierte Luft als Atemluftvorrat, da Superman nicht in allen Versionen ohne Sauerstoff leben kann. Je nach Version/Medium sind die Kräfte unterschiedlich stark ausgelegt. So schwankt die Stärke von „kann Wolkenkratzer anheben" bis „kann Planeten aus der Bahn schieben" und die Fluggeschwindigkeit von Überschall- bis Überlichtgeschwindigkeit. In manchen Geschichten wird Superman nachts schwächer und muss sich erst wieder von der Sonne „aufladen" lassen.

Schwächen [Bearbeiten]

1945 tauchte zum ersten Mal die mysteriöse Substanz Kryptonit in der Superman-Radio-Show auf. Man hatte es erfunden, um den kurzzeitigen Stimmenwechsel der Hauptperson zu erklären, da der ursprüngliche Sprecher wegen einer Krankheit ausgefallen war.

Von Kryptonit gibt es viele verschiedene Formen:

    * Siehe Hauptartikel: Kryptonit

Die häufigste und zugleich wohl bekannteste Variante ist Grünes Kryptonit. Es wirkt wie ein radioaktives Gift. Es schwächt Superman und seine Körperaura und kann ihn sogar töten, wenn er ihm über einen längeren Zeitraum ausgesetzt ist.

Das ebenfalls relativ bekannte Rote Kryptonit hat in den Comics sehr unterschiedliche Folgen. Spätestens seit der Serie Lois & Clark macht es ihn schrittweise (je nach Dauer der Aussetzung) böse und lässt ihn jede Hemmung verlieren. Es ist gleichzusetzen mit dem künstlichen grünen Kryptonit aus dem Film Superman III. In der Fernsehserie Superman - Die Abenteuer von Lois und Clark (Folge 2.20 Das Rote Kryptonit) lässt es Superman gleichgültig bis depressiv werden. Durch die Nähe zu rotem Kryptonit wird er unkontrollierbar und legt dabei auch seine sonstige Zurückhaltung Frauen gegenüber ab.

Der klassische Prä-Krisen-Superman verlor zudem unter roter Sonnenstrahlung seine Superkräfte. Unter oranger Sonne halbierten sich seine Kräfte.

Supermans Kostüm im Wandel der Zeiten [Bearbeiten]
Das Superman Logo seit den 1960er Jahren

In Supermans 60-jähriger Geschichte wurde sein Kostüm, das sich von Akrobatenkostümen herleitet, von vielen gezeichnet - aber die wichtigsten Elemente seines Kostüms blieben unangetastet. Superman trägt ein blaues Kostüm komplettiert von roten Überhosen, roten Stiefeln, einem gelben Gürtel und einem langen roten Cape. Weiterhin gibt es ein hoch stilisiertes Superman-Insignia - bestehend aus einem großen roten „S" umschlossen von einem gelben Schild mit einem roten Rand - welches auf seiner Brust angebracht ist. Das in frühen Abenteuern wie ein mittelalterliches Familienwappen anmutende Supermansymbol entwickelte sich stetig zum uns bekannten und wurde über die Jahre immer größer, bis es Ende der Neunziger fast die gesamte Brust umspannte.

Laut Superman #146 (vol.1) erfand Martha Kent das Kostüm, als sie einen Super-Strampelanzug für den wachsenden Superman entwickelte, weil die Kleidung, die sie im Geschäft kaufte immer wieder beim Spielen zerstört wurde. Glücklicherweise hatten die Kents die Weitsicht, die drei Decken - eine rote, eine blaue und eine gelbe - mit der Superman in seiner Rakete die Erde erreichte aufzuheben. Jahre später änderte Martha Kent das Kostüm, und es wurde zu dem heute bekannten Superman Kostüm.

Supermans Kostüm wird oft als unzerstörbar beschrieben, da es, wie der Mann aus Stahl selbst, vom Planeten Krypton stammt. Dadurch hält es Feuer, Pistolenkugeln und sogar Explosionen stand. Manche Inkarnationen zeigen jedoch eine Vielzahl an Kostümen in Clark Kents Kleiderschrank, die er zusammen mit seiner Mutter schneiderte. Da dieses Material von der Erde stammt, hat er durch seine Arbeit einen hohen Verschleiß.

In den Medien [Bearbeiten]

Überblick [Bearbeiten]

Superman wurde ein so großer Erfolg, dass er neben mehreren Comicserien auch in Hörspielen, Zeichentrickserien, Filmen und Computerspielen auftrat, die fast alle große Erfolge wurden. Aus der Serie sind mehrere andere Superhelden hervorgegangen, vor allem Superboy, Supergirl und Steel. Superman gilt als eine Ikone der Pop-Kultur, die auch in die moderne Kunst Eingang gefunden hat. 1986 modernisierte Comicautor John Byrne den Mann aus Stahl, indem er ihn gleichsam neu erschuf. Superman wurde vieler Kräfte beraubt und menschlicher gemacht.

Seit dieser „Byrne Revamp" genannten, tiefgreifenden Veränderung Supermans durch John Byrne wird Clark Kent (manchmal zur Verwirrung von Comic-Laien) als der eigentliche Charakter angesehen, Superman dagegen als seine Geheimidentität: „Clark ist das, was ich bin – Superman ist das, was ich tun kann" (Fernsehserie Lois & Clark). Byrne ging es darum, den Helden zu vermenschlichen und so für den Leser greifbarer zu machen. Durch den Film Superman Returns wird man jedoch auch in den Comics wieder zur umgekehrten Darstellung der Figur zurückkehren.

Film und Fernsehen [Bearbeiten]
Dean Cain, Darsteller Supermans in der Serie Superman – Die Abenteuer von Lois & Clark

Nach der Zeichentrickserie von 1941 kam Superman erstmals 1948 mit realen Schauspielern als Serial (The Adventures of Superman) in die amerikanischen Kinos. In 15 Episoden, jede endend mit einem Cliffhanger, mit insgesamt 244 Minuten Spielzeit kämpfte Hauptdarsteller Kirk Alyn als erster Darsteller des „Mannes aus Stahl" gegen die Bösen der Welt. Trotz der wenig überzeugenden Flugszenen wird das Serial wegen seiner interessant erzählten Geschichte als eines der besten bezeichnet. Seine Rolle wiederholte Alyn in dem Serial „Atom Man Vs. Superman" (1950) in ebenfalls 15 Episoden mit 252 Minuten Spielzeit. Als nächster Superman-Darsteller spielte George Reeves († 1959) in der Fernsehserie „Adventures of Superman" von 1952 bis 1957 mit. Aus der Serie wurden einige Folgen als Kinofilm zusammengestellt, so im Jahr 1951 „Superman and the Mole Men" und 1952 mit dem einfachen Titel Superman.

Im Jahre 1978 kam nach langjähriger Produktionszeit der Film Superman in die Kinos. Der Regisseur Richard Donner setzte viele bekannte Schauspieler wie Marlon Brando († 2004) oder Gene Hackman ein, doch in der Hauptrolle flog der Newcomer Christopher Reeve († 2004) mit rotem Cape und mit – in damaliger Zeit – revolutionären Spezialeffekten über die Leinwand. Bis heute zählen einige der Flugszenen aus diesem Film zu den besten. Nicht umsonst stand auf den Filmplakaten vor den Kinos „Sie werden glauben, dass der Mensch fliegen kann!". In einer Szene während der Eisenbahnfahrt spielte der erste „Superman" Kirk Alyn eine kleine Nebenrolle als Vater von Lois Lane.

Der Autor Mario Puzo hatte so viel Stoff geliefert, dass es für einen zweiten Teil reichte, welcher im folgenden Jahr (1979/80) ebenfalls für hohe Besucherzahlen in den Kinos sorgte (Superman II – Allein gegen alle). Danach folgten noch zwei Fortsetzungen mit Christopher Reeve, Superman III – Der stählerne Blitz (1983) und Superman IV – Die Welt am Abgrund (1987), die aber mit der Geschichte der Vorgänger nicht mehr viel gemeinsam hatten. Nach den schlechten Einspielergebnissen von Superman IV wurde die Serie beendet. Erst im Jahr 2006 gelang es dem Filmstudio Warner Bros. mit Regisseur Bryan Singer eine weitere Fortsetzung zu inszenieren, die sich wieder an den ersten beiden Filmen orientierte. Für Superman Returns erhielt der bis dahin unbekannte US-amerikanische Seriendarsteller Brandon Routh die Titelrolle. Der Produktion soll 2009 erneut unter der Regie Bryan Singers eine Fortsetzung folgen.
Brandon Routh, Darsteller Supermans in Superman Returns

Kino-Realverfilmungen in Farbe [Bearbeiten]

    * 1978: Superman
    * 1980: Superman II – Allein gegen alle
    * 1983: Superman III – Der stählerne Blitz
    * 1987: Superman IV – Die Welt am Abgrund
    * 2006: *Superman Returns

Erklärungen: *Superman Returns ist eine Fortsetzung von Superman II - Allein gegen alle.

Fernsehserien [Bearbeiten]

    * 1941: Superman (Max Fleischer)
    * 1948: (The Adventures of) Superman
    * 1950: Atom Man vs. Superman
    * 1952: Superman - Retter in der Not (Adventures of Superman)
    * 1966-1970: Ein Job für Superman / Superboy (The new adventures of Superman)
    * 1988: Superboy
    * 1993–1997: Superman – Die Abenteuer von Lois & Clark
    * 1996-2000: Superman: The Animated Series
    * Seit 2001: Smallville (Superman, the early years)

Parodien [Bearbeiten]

Als einer der bedeutendsten Superhelden bot Superman schon immer viele Gelegenheiten für Parodien. So erschien ab 1962 die Figur Wunderwarzenschwein (Wonder Wart Hog) des amerikanischen Zeichners Gilbert Shelton.

In Akira Toriyamas Dr. Slump (1980-1984) taucht die Figur des Suppaman auf, der sich in einen „Superhelden" verwandelt, wenn er saure Gurken isst. Suppaman trägt ein Kostüm mit dem japanischen Schriftzeichen für „su", außerdem fällt ihm eine Locke ins Gesicht.

Radioactive Man, die Lieblingscomicfigur von Bart Simpson, ist eine weitere Parodie auf Superman, was auch dessen bürgerliche Name Claude Kane III (dieselben Initialen wie Clark Kent) zum Ausdruck bringt. Radioactive Man hat seit der ersten Staffel immer wieder Auftritte in der Trickfilmserie Die Simpsons bzw. in den vom Panini Verlag herausgegebenen Simpsons-Comicheften.

In Monty Pythons Sketch Bicycle Repair Man ist der Fahrradmechaniker der Superheld, während alle „gewöhnlichen Bürger" im Superman-Kostüm auftreten.

Videospiele [Bearbeiten]

Das erste Superman-Lizenzspiel erschien im Jahr 1978 unter dem Titel Superman für das Atari 2600. Superman wurde von dem US-amerikanischen Entwickler Midway Games entwickelt und war ein Action-Adventure, das aus der Side-Scroller Perspektive gesteuert wurde. Aufgrund einer schlechten Lokalisierung (Softwareentwicklung) entstanden einige grammatikalische Fehler im Spiel. Im Jahr 1987 erschien das Jump'n Run Superman für das Nintendo Entertainment System. Im Spiel steuert man Clark Kent durch unzählige Missionen und muss die vorhandenen Attacken gegen Gegner einsetzen.

Bis 1994 erschienen vier weitere Superman-Lizenzspiele für unterschiedliche Konsolen (u.a. Superman: The Man of Steel für das Sega Master System). Im Jahr 1994 veröffentlichte SunSoft das Actionspiel „The Death and Return of Superman" für das Super Nintendo. Das Spielprinzip ähnelt der Final-Fight-Reihe, da der Spieler einen von fünf auswählbaren Charakteren (Superman, Steel, Eradicator, Cyborg und Superboy) durch die Side-Scroller Perspektive steuert und dabei Gegner bekämpft.

Im Jahr 1999 veröffentlichte der französische Publisher Titus Software das Actionspiel Superman 64 für das Nintendo 64. Dieses Spiel besitzt in der Videospiel-Branche einen populären Status, da es von vielen Magazinen und Internetseiten zum schlechtesten Spiel aller Zeiten gewählt wurde. Superman 64 belegte in der Electronic Gaming Monthly, ein bekanntes Videospiel-Magazin in den USA, Platz 7.

Seit 2002 ist der französische Publisher Atari für die Videospiel-Umsetzung der Supermanlizenz verantwortlich. Im Jahr 2002 erschienen zwei Superman-Lizenzspiele für Konsolen: Superman: Man of Steel für die Xbox und Superman: Shadow of Apokolips für die PlayStation 2. Superman: Shadow of Apokolips zählt aufgrund der Cel Shading Grafik und dem interessanten Missionsdesign zu den besten Superman-Videospielen.

Im Dezember 2006 erschien Superman Returns, das offizielle Spiel zum Kinofilm, für Xbox 360, PlayStation 2, Xbox und Gamecube
Titel  Erscheinungsdatum  Plattform/en  Herausgeber
Superman  1978  Atari 2600  Atari
Superman: The Game  1985  Commodore 64  First Star Software
Superman  1987  Nintendo Entertainment System  Kemco
Superman  1988  Arcade-Spiel  Taito
Superman: Man of Steel  1988  Commodore 64  Tynesoft
Superman: The Man of Steel  1992  Sega Master System, Sega Mega Drive  Virgin Interactive
Superman  1992  Sega Mega Drive  SunSoft
The Death and Return of Superman  1994, 1995  Super Nintendo, Sega Mega Drive  SunSoft
Justice League Task Force  1995  Super Nintendo, Sega Mega Drive  Acclaim
Superman 64  1999  Nintendo 64  Titus Software
Superman  2000  PlayStation  Titus Software
Justice League: Injustice for All  2002  Game Boy Advance  Midway Games
Superman: Man of Steel  2002  Xbox  Atari
Superman: Shadow of Apokolips  2002, 2003  PlayStation 2, Gamecube  Atari
Superman: Countdown to Apokolips  2003  Game Boy Advance  Atari
Justice League: Chronicles  2003  Game Boy Advance  Midway
Superman Returns  2006  Xbox 360, PlayStation 2, Xbox, Gamecube  Electronic Arts

Begleitfiguren und Gegner [Bearbeiten]

Siehe Hauptartikel:

    * Nebenfiguren im Superman-Universum
    * Schurken im Superman-Universum

Quellen [Bearbeiten]

   1.  Don LoCicero: Superheroes and Gods, 2007. Laut LoCicero ist Superman neben der Mickey Maus, Tarzan und Sherlock Holmes einer von vier Figuren mit der höchsten (optischen) Wiedererkennungswert weltweit.
   2.  Justice (Part 2): Real Life Inspiration for Superman's Greatest Challenges von Stuart Max Perelmuter, in: ComicBookResources, 15. März 2006.
   3.  CBS-Radiosendung vom 9. Oktober 1940. Auch ausschnittsweise enthalten in dem Dokumentarfilm Once Upon a Time...The Super Heroes von 2002.
   4.  .
   5.  Don LoCicero: Superheores and Gods, 2007, S. 237. Wie LoCicero an gleicher Stelle bemerkt tat paradoxerweise selbst der Umstand Hirohitos Supermanbegeisterung keinen Abbruch, dass Superman in den Comics der Kriegszeit häufig japanische Truppenverbände, Flieger und Schiffe „aufs Korn nahm".
   6.  Pierre Couperie: A History of Comic Strip, New York 1968, S.83. Die Äußerung fiel im Zusammenhang mit einer Superman-Geschichte, in der dieser den deutschen Atlantikwall zur Vorbereitung einer amerikanischen Invasion der „Festung Europa" attackiert.
   7.  Michael Eury: The Krypton Companion, 2006, S. 14. Im Original heißt es „The Man of Steel cannot get through the Iron Curtain"
   8.  Superman. The Comic Strip Hero, BBC-Dokumentation, Großbritannien 1981.
   9.  Ebd.
  10.  Crisis on Infinite Earths (engl.)

Siehe auch [Bearbeiten]

    * DC Comics
    * DC-Universum
    * Superboy
    * Supergirl

Literatur [Bearbeiten]

    * Raphael Gross & Erik Riedel (Hg): Superman und Golem. Der Comic als Medium jüdischer Erinnerung Jüdisches Museum, Frankfurt (M) 2008 (Katalog zur Ausstellung Dez.08 - März 09, ohne ISBN) zweisprachig dt./engl.

Weblinks [Bearbeiten]

    *
      Commons Commons: Superman – Bilder, Videos und Audiodateien
    * DC Database Project: Superman (engl.)
    * Superman bei DCPedia
    * Superman Info Alles über Superman
    * Panini Comics Herausgeber der Comics in Deutschland




Superman personaje de ficción y superhéroe cuya primera aparición fue en la revista Action Comics N°1 en abril de 1938 (aunque la fecha de portada es de junio). Fue el primer superhéroe de la historia, es decir, con habilidades sobrehumanas. Con el tiempo se convirtió en uno de los cómics de superhéroes más populares del mundo, y en inspiración para el naciente género. Su popularidad ha transcendido el mundo del cómic, siendo uno de los iconos de la cultura pop.
Contenido
[ocultar]

    * 1 Generalidades
    * 2 Historia
          o 2.1 Personajes relacionados
    * 3 Los cómics
    * 4 Cine y televisión
    * 5 Enemigos
    * 6 Véase también
    * 7 Enlaces externos
    * 8 Enlaces externos

Generalidades [editar]

Superman fue creado por Joe Shuster y Jerry Siegel, y ha aparecido en varias series de radio, televisión, películas y otros medios. En su versión actual, publicada por la editorial DC Comics, Superman nació en el lejano planeta Kryptón bajo el nombre de Kal-El. Siendo un bebé, fue enviado al planeta Tierra por su padre Jor-El, justo antes de la desintegración del planeta. La nave espacial en la que viajaba aterrizó en las afueras del ficticio poblado de Smallville (Villachica), en el estado de Kansas. El bebé fue encontrado y adoptado por el matrimonio Kent: Jonathan y Martha Kent, quienes lo llamaron Clark Kent. Al crecer, Clark fue descubriendo habilidades y poderes sobrehumanos. Clark se convierte en Superman, haciendo uso de sus asombrosos poderes para luchar por la verdad, la justicia y el estilo de vida estadounidense. En su identidad civil, Clark es reportero del periódico Daily Planet y un notable escritor de libros en la ficticia ciudad de Metrópolis.

El uniforme es rojo y azul, con una capa roja y un cinturón, y en el pecho el logotipo, que se compone de la silueta de un diamante (para ilustrar la fortaleza del heroe) que enmarca una "S".

Los orígenes de Superman, habilidades y relaciones interpersonales han cambiado con el paso de los años. Editores y escritores utilizan el procedimiento de "continuidad retroactiva" para ajustar los cambios del personaje en la cultura popular, eliminando segmentos restrictivos del mito y permitiendo historias contemporáneas. Estos cambios permiten retener los elementos básicos que convierten a Superman en un verdadero ícono.

Historia [editar]
Superman, el primer superhéroe, creado en 1938.

Superman nació en el planeta Krypton con el nombre de Kal-El, siendo hijo del científico y líder Jor-El y de la antigua astronauta Lara Lor-Van. Cuando Kal-El tenía aproximadamente 2 ó 3 años de edad, Jor-El descubrió que en el interior del planeta se estaba formando un nuevo elemento químicamente letal para los kryptonianos debido a las altas presiones dentro del planeta, el cual a su vez estaba ascendiendo lentamente a la superficie, lo que ocasionaría su destrucción, por lo que trató de llamar la atención de los líderes del planeta, el Consejo de Ciencia. Pero no le creyeron, y se negaron a advertir del peligro al resto de los ciudadanos de Krypton, prohibiéndole además hacerlo él mismo para evitar que cundiese el pánico. Jor-El prometió que ni él ni su esposa Lara abandonarían Krypton, y decidió usar el tiempo que le restaba al planeta para salvar a su hijo, ya que en los comics se explica que los kryptonianos están ligados genéticamente a su planeta natal y no pueden salir del planeta, Kal-el sobrevivio la salida de Krypton gracias a que Jor-el logro inyectarle una "vacuna" la cual le daria la ventaja de sobrevivir fuera del planeta. Momentos antes de la explosión de Krypton, Jor-El lanzó a Kal-El en una cápsula espacial con rumbo a la Tierra, sabiendo que la baja gravedad de la Tierra y su sol amarillo darían al niño extraordinarios poderes.

La única debilidad importante de Superman es explicada en detalle en el número 312 de la colección de Superman. Los fragmentos radioactivos del planeta, compuestos por el mineral llamado kryptonita, fueron lanzados por la explosión al espacio. Generalmente, aparecen bajo la forma de cristales verdes, aunque también hay variedades roja, negra, etc., de distintas propiedades. La Kryptonita es letal en los kriptonianos, en los humanos es casi inofensiva, pero no del todo, ya que si se exponen por mucho tiempo (años) puede generar envenenamiento de la sangre.

La nave de Kal-El aterrizó en un campo cerca del pueblo de Smallville (Villachica), y fue descubierta por Jonathan y Martha Kent (aunque, en cómics anteriores, los Kent se llamaban "John" y "Mary"; en la novela de 1942 y en la serie de televisión de los años 1950, eran "Eben" y "Sarah"). Ellos lo llamaron Clark (apellido de soltera de Martha). Después de adoptarlo legalmente, los Kent lo educaron en su granja hasta sus años en la preparatoria.

Con el tiempo, Clark descubrió el bien que podría realizar con sus poderes, y comenzó a entrenarse para poder usarlos con sabiduría. En las versiones anteriores a las Crisis en Tierras Infinitas, adoptaba la identidad de Superboy a la edad de 8 años, iniciando su lucha contra el crimen. Con esta identidad, llegó a viajar al futuro para ser miembro fundador de la Legión de Superhéroes. Después de la graduación de la preparatoria, Clark se mudó a Metrópolis para estudiar en la universidad. Durante estos años, Clark cambió su nombre de superhéroe a Superman. Después de la graduación como periodista, Clark fue contratado como reportero del Daily Planet (diario El Planeta).

En las versiones posteriores a las crisis, Clark no descubre sus poderes hasta casi ser adulto, no habiendo sido nunca Superboy. Además, sus padres adoptivos siguen vivos en Smallville. En la serie de TV Smallville, basada en los cómics de Superman, Clark es amigo de Lex Luthor su archienemigo de adulto, Jonathan Kent muere el día que es elegido senador del estado de Kansas y Martha toma su lugar como senadora y viaja a Washington para convertirse en senadora nacional.

Personajes relacionados [editar]

Algunos de los personajes habituales en sus historias son:

    * Lois Lane, ambos forman el equipo de reporteros estelares del Daily Planet, también es su verdadero y gran amor.
    * Jimmy Olsen, compañero del Daily Planet, y amigo oficial de Superman, aunque no sabe que Superman y Clark son la misma persona.
    * Perry White, editor en jefe del Daily Planet.
    * Lana Lang, su primer gran amor adolescente, con la que compartirá sus aventuras en Smallville.
    * Pete Ross, mejor amigo de Clark en Smallville.
    * Chloe Sullivan, amiga de Clark Kent agregada en la serie de TV Smallville.
    * Jor-El, científico y líder kryptoniano y padre biológico de Superman.
    * Lara Lor-Van, madre biológica kryptoniana de Superman.
    * Jonathan y Martha Kent, padres adoptivos de Superman desde que encontraron al bebé Kal-El en su nave.
    * Kara Zor-El, prima kryptoniana de Superman con poderes similares a los suyos. Ha sido recuperada en historias recientes con una personalidad que dista bastante de la original.
    * Lionel Luthor, es el padre de Lex Luthor y el fundador de LuthorCorp.

Los cómics [editar]
"Superman: Billion Dollar Limited".

El personaje fue utilizado, como la mayoría de los personajes de los cómics estadounidenses de la época, como instrumento de propaganda patriótica durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial.

    * El Superman de Tierra 1, que sería la versión vigente durante la mayor parte del siglo, hasta las Crisis en Tierras Infinitas de mediados de los ochenta. Tímido y torpe como Clark Kent, sería la versión utilizada en las películas. Mantuvo la duda entre Lana y Lois hasta que, al final, se decidió por la segunda. En su adolescencia, se hace llamar Superboy.
    * A mediados de los ochenta, la editorial poseedora de los derechos del personaje decide relanzar a su superhéroe más popular. En junio de 1986 suspende la publicación de las tres series protagonizadas por Superman. En julio lanza la miniserie de seis números El Hombre de Acero a cargo de John Byrne (guión y dibujo) y Dick Giordano (entintado), que rediseña y actualiza al personaje. El Superman actual, menos poderoso que sus predecesores, pero mucho más independiente y capaz en su identidad humana. "Murió" luchando contra Doomsday, para resucitar al poco tiempo en una exitosa maniobra comercial a cargo del escritor y dibujante Dan Jurgens. Actualmente está casado con Lois Lane.

Hoy en día el personaje sigue gozando de una gran popularidad, siendo sus historias publicadas en decenas de países, y apareciendo una media docena de cómics cada mes en Estados Unidos.

Doomsday fue un ser creado por científicos kriptonianos. El encargado de la investigación se llamaba Bertron y estaba obsesionado por la creación del ser perfecto. Utilizó un feto para este experimento, el cual se basaba en la supervivencia del más apto. Un planeta donde sólo habitaban criaturas poderosas pero no inteligentes, y el clima mataba a cualquier criatura en segundos, fue la cuna de esta criatura. Al paso de los años la criatura empezó a presentar cambios físicos, impulsado por la necesidad de sobrevivir, empezó a conquistar el medio ambiente y después a las criaturas que ahí vivían. Al paso de 30 años, sólo existía el ser definitivo, un nombre que Bertron consideró muy apropiado. El Definitivo arrasó con todos los científicos y escapó en una de las naves que abastecía a la comunidad científica, cabe mencionar que dicho planeta es Krypton pero muchísimos años antes de ser el Krypton avanzado tecnológicamente en el que conocimos a Jor-El, y Doomsday es una máquina biológica la cual tiene la facultad de regresar a la vida más poderosa del medio ambiente y/o del enemigo que le haya arrebatado la vida con anterioridad, dando como resultado ser en un futuro más poderoso que superman y logrando la destrucción total de "Radiante". Con el tiempo llegó a Calaton, una civilización muy avanzada, en la cual la familia real constaba de poderes metahumanos, que posteriormente se sacrificarían para crear a Radiante, un ser de pura energía. La batalla se extendió una semana, en la que Radiante al usar casi toda su energía y destruir parte del planeta logró derrotar finalmente a Doomsday. Los habitantes de Calaton consideraron indigno enterrar a Doomsday en su suelo, así que lo vistieron y lo ataron, lo metieron en una nave y lo expulsaron al espacio, donde chocó con asteroides y llegó a la Tierra, permaneciendo enterrado durante años, hasta que despertó y una vez más se dispuso a destruir la faz del nuevo planeta al que había llegado. Casi acabando por entero con Metrópolis en su batalla con Superman, finalmente éste logró detenerlo, aunque a costa de su vida.

Luego Superman regresaría a la vida, y se enfrentaría nuevamente a Doomsday, para derrotarlo definitivamente en una saga conocida como Hunter/Prey en la que Superman sería esta vez el cazador, y se embarca en el espacio para destruir a la bestia Doomsday y evitar así que siguiera causando destrucción a otros mundos.

Cine y televisión [editar]
Véase también: Serie fílmica de Superman
Superman sosteniendo un edificio.

Entre las adaptaciones a otros medios se cuentan:

    * Cortos animados por los estudios Fleischer en los años 1940.
    * Superman, serial para cine de 15 episodios protagonizados por Kirk Alyn en 1948.
    * Atom Man vs. Superman, serial para cine de 15 episodios protagonizados por Kirk Alyn en 1951.
    * Serie de televisión en los años 50, Aventuras de Superman, protagonizada por George Reeves.
    * Varias series de dibujos animados.
    * Los Súper Amigos.
    * Superman (13 episodios, año 1988. Serie animada producida con motivo del 50 aniversario del personaje. Incluía El álbum familiar de Superman).
    * Superman: La serie animada.
    * Batman Beyond, en el episodio doble The Call
    * La serie de cuatro películas que empezó con Superman (1978), protagonizadas por Christopher Reeve como Superman, Gene Hackman como Lex Luthor y Margot Kidder como Lois Lane.
    * Aparición regular en la serie de animación Liga de la Justicia y Liga de la Justicia Ilimitada.
    * Superboy (serie de televisión 4 temporadas de finales de los años 1980 y principios de los 1990)
    * Lois y Clark, las nuevas aventuras de Superman, serie de televisión, años 90. protagonizada por Dean Cain como Superman/Clark Kent y Teri Hatcher como Lois Lane
    * Smallville, serie de televisión sobre su adolescencia y los orígenes de su enemistad con Lex Luthor. Protagonizada por Tom Welling como Clark Kent, Michael Rosenbaum como Lex Luthor y Kristin Kreuk como Lana Lang y Alison Mack como Chloe Sulivan
    * Superman Returns (2006), película protagonizada por Brandon Routh como Superman, Kate Bosworth como Lois Lane y Kevin Spacey como Lex Luthor.
    * Legión de Superhéroes (2007), una serie en la que el adolescente Clark Kent (Superboy) es llamado por un grupo de superhéroes del siglo XXXI para que los ayude para vencer a los enemigos de la Legión.
    * Justice League: Mortal (2011), película donde Superman (D.J. Cotrona), Batman (Armie Hammer), Wonder Woman (Megan Gale), Aquaman (Santiago Cabrera), Flash (Adam Brody) y otros superhéroes que se unen para luchar contra las fuerzas del mal.

Enemigos [editar]

    * Anomalía
    * Arclight
    * Barón Sunday
    * Barrage
    * Baud
    * Bizarro
    * Blaze
    * Brainiac
    * Cerberus
    * Conducto
    * Cyborg Superman (Hank Henshaw)
    * Darkseid
    * Dominus
    * Doomsday
    * Draaga
    * Erradicador (primera y tercera versión)
    * Grupo Los Tres Dominantes
    * Juguetero
    * Lex Luthor
    * Lord Satanus
    * Masacre
    * Máxima
    * Metallo
    * Mongul
    * Morgan Edge
    * Mr. Mxyzptlk
    * Mr Z.
    * Parásito
    * Prankster
    * Riot
    * Sanguinario I
    * Sanguinario II
    * Satanus
    * Saviou
    * Silver Banshee
    * Superboy Prime
    * Tolos
    * Zod

Véase también [editar]

    * Muerte de Superman
    * Superman en la historia estadounidense
    * Superman Red Son
    * Editorial Novaro




Superman
Wikipedia(e)tik
Hona jo: nabigazioa, Bilatu
Supermamenen lehenengo agerpena, 1938an

Superman komikietako superheroi bat da. 1938. urtean Joe Schuster eta Jerry Siegel komikigileek asmatu zuten.
Eduki-taula
[ezkutatu]

    * 1 Supermanen oinarrizko historia
    * 2 Supermanen Lurreko izenaren jatorria
    * 3 Supermanen jantzia
    * 4 Justiziaren Liga
    * 5 Superman zinean eta telebistan
    * 6 Beste pertsonaia batzuk
    * 7 Arerioak
    * 8 Bere botereak
    * 9 Kanpo loturak

[aldatu] Supermanen oinarrizko historia

Superman, Krypton planetan jaio zen, Kal-El izenarekin. Bere benetako gurasoak Jor-El eta Lara Lor-Van ziren. Kal-El ia jaioberria zela, bere gurasoek, espaziuntzi batetan sartu zuten. Izan ere, Krypton planeta, eztanda egitear zegoen, Kal-Elen gurasoek, euren semea espaziuntzian sartu zutenean. Zorionez, planetak eztanda egin aurretik ihes egin ahal izan zuen Kal-Elek. Eztandaren ondorioz, planeta txiki-txiki egina geratu zen. Planetaren zati horiek, kryptonita mineral erradiaktiboa eratu zuten. Halako batean, bidaia luze baten ondoren, Kal-El Lur planetara iritsi zen, bere untziak, landetxe batetik gertu lur hartuz, meteorito jasa egon zen egun batetan. Meteorito jasa amaitu zenean, landetxe hartan bizi zirenak, Jonathan Kent eta Martha Kent espaziuntzia lurreratu zen tokira heldu ziren. Eta barruan, ume txiki bat aurkitzen zela ikusi zuten. Kent bikoteak, ezin zuen haur propiorik izan. Horregatik, Kal-El hartu zuten semetzat. Bikote honek, Clark izena jarri zion. Denborarekin, heltzen ari zihoan heinean, bere botere bereziak zeintzuk ziren nabaritzen hasi zen. Gaztaroan Superboy izena hartu zuen. Helduaroan, Clark Kent, Daily Planet egunkarian lanean hasi zen. Bertan, denborarekin Lois Lane kazetariaz maitemindu zen. Garairako, bere botereak kontrolatzen bazekien. Eta mundu guztiaren aurrean, bere benetako izaera gorde behar izaten zuen. Helduaroan, jada Superman gisa, bere areriorik ohikoena, Lex Luthor izan zen. Kryptonita, batez ere berde kolorekoa, oso kaltegarria zen Supermanentzat, bere botereak ahultzen bait zituen, hiltzeko punturaino. Lex Luthorrek berak erabiliko zuen, hainbat alditan, Supermanen aurka, hatzamar batetan zuen eraztunaren bidez. Helduaroan, Metropolisen bizi da.

[aldatu] Supermanen Lurreko izenaren jatorria

Clark Kent izena, Siegel eta Schusterrek asmatu zuten, Superman pertsonaia asmatu zen garaian, oso ezagun ziren bi pertsonen izenak loturik: Clark Gable eta Kent Taylor aktoreak.

[aldatu] Supermanen jantzia
Supermanen jantzia mozorro denda batean.

Supermanek eramaten zuen jantzia oso ezaguna da: Kapa gorri bat, erdialdean, pentagono bat, eta, honen barruan S bat aurkitzen delarik. Pentagonoa eta esea guztiz horiak dira. Gainerako jantzia, urdin kolorekoa da, batipat: Papar aldean, kapan bezala, pentagono bat S batekin du. Baina, kasu hontan, bi koloretakoa da. Pentagonoaren zati gehiena, esea barne, gorria da. Gainerantzeko zatitxoak, horiak. Gerri aldean, eta iztarren goialderaino, praka labur batzuk, gerriko hori batekin lotuak ditu. Iztarralde hortatik, hanketaraino, pieza bakarreko zati urdinaren bigarren zatia aurkitzen da, hankei dagokiena. Eta, hankak estaltzen, bota gorri batzuk ditu.

[aldatu] Justiziaren Liga

Justiziaren ligaren sortzaileetako bat da Superman. DC Comics komiki argitaletxeak asmatu zuen komiki hau, eta bertan, Superman, Batman, Emakume Miragarria eta beste hainbat superheroi aurkitzen dira.

[aldatu] Superman zinean eta telebistan

    * Smallville Telesail hontako protagonistak, Tom Welling Clark Kenten paperean, Kristin Kreuk, Lana Langen paperean eta Michael Rosenbaum Lex Luthorren paperean dira. Gainera, Lex eta Clark, telesail hontan, lagunak dira.
    * Superman pelikulak 1978. urtean hasita, Christopher Reeve aktoreak egin zuen Supermanen papera, lau pelikulatan. Lois Lanen papera, berriz, Margot Kidderrek egin zuen.
    * Lois eta Clark Supermanen abentura berriak. Telesail hontan, Dean Cainek egiten du Superman-Clark Kenten papera eta Teri Hatcherrek Lois Lanen papera.
    * Superman Returns Supermani buruzko bosgarren pelikula da hau. Protagonistak Brandon Routh Supermanen paperean, Kate Bosworth Lois Lanen paperean, eta Kevin Spacey Lex Luthorren paperean dira.

[aldatu] Beste pertsonaia batzuk

    * Jimmy Olsen
    * Perry White
    * Pete Ross Smallvillen
    * Chloe Sullivan Smallvillen

[aldatu] Arerioak

    * Zod
    * Tolos
    * Superman Prime
    * Silver Banshee
    * Saviou
    * Satanus
    * Odoltzalea I
    * Odoltzalea II
    * Riot
    * Prankster
    * Bizkarroi I
    * Z jauna
    * Mxyzptlk jauna
    * Morgan Edge
    * Mongul
    * Metallo
    * Maxima
    * Masakre
    * Lord Satanus
    * Lex Luthor
    * Jostailugile
    * Hiru Dominatzaileen Taldea
    * Ezabatzailea
    * Draaga
    * Doomsday
    * Dominus
    * Darkseid
    * Superman Ziborga (Hank Henshaw)
    * Kondukto
    * Cerberus
    * Brainiac
    * Blaze
    * Bizarro
    * Baud
    * Barrage
    * Sunday Baroia
    * Arclight
    * Anomalia

[aldatu] Bere botereak

    * X izpi bidezko ikusmena
    * balek minik ez egitea
    * superrentzumena: Kilometrotara entzun dezake elkarrizketa bat
    * hegan egitea
    * soinua bezain azkar korrika egitea.




Superman
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Pour les articles homonymes, voir Superman (homonymie). Page d'aide sur l'homonymie
Superman
Personnage de Superman
Superman dans sa version animée
Alias  Clark Joseph Kent, né Kal-El (véritable identité)
Origine  Krypton
Espèce  kryptonien
Pouvoirs  Vol, super force, rapidité et endurance,
multiples pouvoirs extra sensoriels,
invulnérabilité, longévité.
Famille  Lois Lane (femme),
Jor-El (père, décédé),
Lara Lor-Van (mère, décédée),
Jonathan Kent (père adoptif),
Martha Kent (mère adoptive),
Zor-El (oncle, décédé),
Alura In-Ze (tante, décédée),
Kara Zor-El (cousine),
Kon-El (clone partiel, "cousin", décédé),
Cir-El (clone partiel, "fille"),
Kal (clone (Infinite City), "frère")
Affiliation  Daily Planet, JLA
Ennemi(s)  Ennemis de Superman
Créé par  Jerry Siegel
Joe Shuster
Première apparition  Historique:
Action Comics #1 (Juin 1938)
Moderne:
Crisis on Infinite Earths #11 (Février 1986)
Revisité:
Superman: Birthright #1 (2003)
Éditeur(s)  DC Comics

Superman est un personnage de fiction créé par Jerry Siegel et Joe Shuster dans le comic Action Comics de l'éditeur DC Comics le premier juin 1938. Il est doté de pouvoirs surhumains et le premier aux États-Unis d'une longue descendance de super-héros.

L'histoire de Superman sur le papier connaît plusieurs versions de 1938 à aujourd'hui, auteurs et dessinateurs confondus. Chaque nouvelle version reprend des éléments de ses prédécesseurs, mais apporte aussi son lot de nouveautés et d'originalité : la réunion de l'ensemble a assuré le succès de la légende de Superman. Il faut bien entendu y ajouter les films, les dessins animés et les séries : tous amènent leur propre vision.

Le logo de Superman est un " S " rouge dans une figure géométrique jaune sur fond bleu.
Sommaire
[masquer]

    * 1 Histoire du personnage
          o 1.1 Crisis on Infinite Earths
          o 1.2 Man of Steel
          o 1.3 Kal-El (version actuelle)
          o 1.4 La mort de Superman
          o 1.5 All-Star
          o 1.6 Principales histoires dans le cadre des séries régulières
          o 1.7 Mini-séries et séries dérivées
    * 2 Caractéristiques
          o 2.1 Points faibles
    * 3 Notes et références
          o 3.1 Entourage
          o 3.2 Ennemis de Superman
    * 4 Dessins animés
          o 4.1 Voir
    * 5 Cinéma
    * 6 Acteurs des films
    * 7 Télévision
    * 8 Jeux vidéos
          o 8.1 Jeux Superman
          o 8.2 Jeux avec Superman et autres personnages
                + 8.2.1 Avec la Ligue de Justice d'Amérique
                + 8.2.2 Autres
          o 8.3 Jeux avec Superman comme personnage non-jouable
    * 9 Liens externes

Histoire du personnage [modifier]

Superman voit le jour en 1933 de l'inspiration de Jerry Siegel et Joe Shuster, deux amis qui se sont rencontrés au lycée de Cleveland (Ohio). Passionnés de science-fiction, ils publient un fanzine (une revue de faible diffusion) intitulé justement Science Fiction. Siegel écrit les scénarios et Shuster les illustre. C'est dans ce fanzine qu'apparaît pour la première fois le nom de Superman, dans une histoire des plus étonnantes : un savant fou dote un homme de superpouvoirs qui devient un Superman vil et cruel.

Après cette première version passée totalement inaperçue, Siegel décide de revoir entièrement sa copie : il fait de son Superman un héros défenseur de la veuve et de l'orphelin. Il adapte aussi ses histoires pour les faire tenir dans un format comics : en effet, le début des années 1930 voit se développer rapidement ce genre de bandes dessinées aux États-Unis. Les éditeurs n'accrochent cependant pas et Superman se retrouve au placard.

1934 marque la seconde naissance de Superman. Siegel et Shuster mettent au point tout l'univers entourant le super-héros : les origines kryptoniennes, Kal-L (aujourd'hui Kal-El), Clark Kent, Metropolis, Lois Lane, le costume jaune, rouge et bleu avec le S rouge sur un pentagone jaune (le tout plaqué en un symbole sur le milieu de la poitrine)... Encore une fois les éditeurs rechignent à publier. Quatre ans après, Siegel et Shuster sont repérés par la maison d'édition DC Comics pour occuper les pages du magazine Action Comics.

Avant même d'apparaître dans Action Comics, le personnage de Superman a subi nombre de modifications. On connaît le succès qui attend le fils de fermiers.

Depuis 1938, Superman est resté un personnage surpuissant défenseur des justes causes. Cependant, plusieurs étapes dans sa longue carrière sont à distinguer.
Icône de détail Article détaillé : Terre-II.

Terre-II a été créée à la fin des années 1960, et était censée être le monde dans lequel les premières histoires de Superman sont censées s'être déroulées. C'est donc un Superman plus âgé qui y vit, dont le nom kryptonien est Kal-L (le premier nom employé pour désigner Superman, l'orthographe Kal-El étant adoptée plus tardivement).

Kal-L était le fils de Jor-L et Lora (appelés sur la Terre I Jor-El et Lara-El). Son père l'envoya sur Terre pour le sauver de l'explosion qui menaçait Krypton, sa planète natale ; l'enfant fut trouvé par John (nommé sur la Terre I Johnathan) et Martha Kent qui le rebaptisèrent « Clark ». Clark fut mis dans un orphelinat à Smallville, pour une durée plus ou moins longue, jusqu'à ce que les Kent décident de l'adopter. Après leur mort, Clark s'en alla vivre à Metropolis pour chercher un emploi dans le journal Daily Star, mais sa candidature fut rejetée. Il décida de suivre l'histoire d'Evelyn Curry, condamnée à mort pour meurtre. Kal-L découvrit qu'elle était innocente, et sous l'identité de Superman, il arrêta la vraie coupable, sauvant la vie d'Evelyn. Cela fit de lui une célébrité nationale en tant que Superman et Clark fut accepté comme journaliste au Daily Star.

Il est le seul super-héros à visage découvert et pourtant non reconnu (par ses proches et ses ennemis) grâce à son apparence banale ainsi qu'un des reporters les plus appréciés. Superman aida à fonder la Société de Justice et en devint un membre honoraire. Il finit par se marier avec la Lois Lane de Terre-II. Pendant leur voyage de noces, elle essaya de lui couper les cheveux, et lorsque les ciseaux se cassèrent, elle prit conscience de la véritable identité de son mari mais renouvela ses vœux matrimoniaux parce qu'elle l'aimait. Son mari devint aussi le rédacteur en chef du Daily Star.
Icône de détail Article détaillé : Superboy.

Terre-I a été créée au début des années 1960, et était censée être le monde dans lequel les histoires de Superman de l'Âge d'Argent (et en tant que Superboy) sont censées s'être déroulées. C'est donc un Superman plus jeune qui y vit, dont le nom kryptonien est Kal-El.

Superboy était à l'origine simplement Kal-El enfant et était essentiellement traité comme une version junior de Superman. En effet, Superboy portait le costume de Superman et son alter ego Clark Kent portait des lunettes comme déguisement pour son identité civile. Le personnage fut créé sans la permission des créateurs de Superman, Jerry Siegel et Joe Shuster, ce qui contribua à approfondir un fossé déjà grandissant entre eux et l'éditeur, DC Comics.

Superboy, apparu pour la première fois dans More Fun Comics #101 (1944), déménagea ensuite dans Adventure Comics. En 1949, Superboy eut droit à son propre comic-book. C'est à ce moment que les personnages secondaires se développèrent autour du héros. Les seuls personnages majeurs à apparaître durant les premières années étaient Jonathan et Martha (ou "Ma et Pa") Kent. À partir de Superboy #2, les aventures de Superboy se déroulèrent à Smallville, USA. Certains des ennemis de Superman, comme les vilains de la Zone Fantôme, firent leurs premières apparitions dans les histoires de Superboy, et d'autres (comme Mr. Mxyzptlk) apparurent dans des versions plus jeunes.

Crisis on Infinite Earths [modifier]
Icône de détail Article détaillé : Crisis on Infinite Earths.

Pendant Crisis on Infinite Earths, toutes les réalités parallèles de l'univers DC ont fusionné en une seule. Certains héros se retrouvèrent désormais sans passé, tandis que celui de certains de leurs collègues se trouvait modifié. Terre-II disparut donc, et avec elle tout ce à quoi tenait Kal-L.

Après la bataille finale contre l'Anti-Monitor, Alexander Luthor Jr, le seul survivant de Terre-III, révéla à Kal-L que sa femme était vivante, et les transporta avec Superboy de Terre-Prime dans une dimension paradisiaque dans laquelle Kal-L était censé rester pour l'éternité. Cependant il fut révélé en 1999 dans la minisérie The Kingdom que Superman ne voyait plus sa dimension comme un paradis mais comme une prison. Il finit par trouver une sortie qui ne causerait pas la destruction de l'Univers DC. Mais il décida de rester encore dans la dimension paradisiaque pour un certain temps.

Dans Infinite Crisis Secret Files 2006, on montre Kal-L était initialement content dans le "paradis" juste avant la dépression de Lois par l'absence de Power Girl. Voyant cela, Kal-L construit une réplique du Daily Star croyant que cela lui donnerait plus d'énergie. Croyant que le "paradis" dévorait leurs consciences, Alex Luthor (plus froid et distant que jamais car il n'avait jamais eu une enfance et par le fait qu'il était condamné à un exil éternel après avoir sauvé l'Univers) profita de l'attention de Superman pour Lois pour convaincre à un Superboy-Prime frustré de sortir de la dimension en rompant la barrière de la réalité, commençant la chaîne des évènements qui vont culminer à Infinite Crisis. L'altération de la réalité par Superboy-Prime affecta très gravement la santé de Lois.

Man of Steel [modifier]

En 1986, après la publication de la minisérie Crisis on Infinite Earths, de Marv Wolfman (scénariste) et George Pérez (dessinateur), l'éditeur DC décide de remettre Superman au goût du jour. Pour ce faire, ils embauchent John Byrne, auteur complet célèbre pour ses prestations sur X-Men et Fantastic Four. Dans la minisérie Man of Steel, Byrne redéfinit Superman (qui n'a jamais été Superboy et dont les pouvoirs sont moins puissants), mais aussi ses ennemis (Lex Luthor, qui n'est plus un savant fou mais un magnat de la finance, Bizarro…) et ses amis (Lois Lane, Perry White, Jimmy Olsen…). Ensuite, Byrne dessine conjointement la nouvelle série Superman, ainsi que Action Comics, série qui présentera, tous les mois, Superman associé à un autre personnage de l'univers DC.

Ce nouveau départ permit de remettre à plat la genèse du personnage et de renverser le couple Superman-Clark Kent : à partir de cette série, c'est bien Superman qui est l'identité secrète de Clark Kent, ce qui permit de développer de nombreux aspects de l'« humanité » de Superman, dont ses relations sentimentales avec Lois Lane (voir séries télévisées ci-dessous).

Kal-El (version actuelle) [modifier]
Fichier:Fleischer sup film.jpg

Dans la version actuelle de son histoire, Superman est né sur la planète Krypton sous le nom de « Kal-El ». Encore bébé, il fut placé dans un vaisseau spatial par son père, le scientifique Jor-El, et sa mère, Lara, car la planète était sous la menace d'une destruction totale.

Le vaisseau quitta Krypton juste avant l'explosion fatidique... Au terme d'un très long voyage, il atterrit sur la planète Terre. Kal-El est trouvé par un couple de fermiers de Smallville, (Kansas). Jonathan et Martha Kent, qui n'ont pas d'enfant, décident alors de l'adopter et de garder le secret sur son origine.

Kal-El est rebaptisé « Clark Joseph Kent » et grandit entouré de ses amis Lana Lang (son premier amour) et Pete Ross jusqu'à ce que ses pouvoirs se révèlent à lui au moment de son adolescence.

Jeune adulte, Clark décide de s'installer à Metropolis pour devenir journaliste. Il y est engagé par Perry White, le rédacteur en chef du Daily Planet. Il y travaille avec le photographe Jimmy Olsen et avec la principale reporter du journal, Lois Lane. Celle-ci s'éprend de Superman mais dédaigne Clark. Celui-ci cache son identité de super-héros derrière une allure naïve, une paire de lunettes et des habits larges.

Le jour de son arrivée à Metropolis, Clark utilise ses pouvoirs pour éviter une catastrophe. Dès lors, sous la forme de Superman, il sauve des vies, combat les méchants ... Pour changer de costume, le comics montre Clark entrant dans une cabine téléphonique ; plus tard, il se sert d'une petite salle de stockage du journal. Kal-El est un des piliers de la Justice League of America ainsi qu'un des super-héros les plus appréciés.

La mort de Superman [modifier]
Icône de détail Article détaillé : La mort de Superman.

Superman est mort dans Superman (vol. 2) #75, en 1993 ; ceci fut certainement l'évènement éditorial le plus médiatisé de l'histoire des comics. L'adversaire de Superman y était Doomsday, une créature de destruction ultra-puissante qui s'était engagée dans un saccage apparemment sans fin à travers les États-Unis.

Il est ensuite ressuscité, à l'occasion d'une grande saga qui vit apparaître la version actuelle de Superboy.

Superman a connu diverses apparences, adoptant un temps les cheveux longs, puis un costume bleu, correspondant à une modification de ses pouvoirs, avant de revenir à une version plus classique et finit par se marier avec Lois (cette dernière ayant appris son secret).

En 2003, le scénariste Jeph Loeb réunit "l'Homme d'Acier" avec son collègue de Gotham City dans Superman/Batman, série qui commence quand les deux héros sont confrontés à Lex Luthor, élu président des États-Unis, qui a décidé de les éliminer une fois pour toutes en jetant le discrédit sur eux, et en envoyant à leurs trousses d'autres super-héros. La série se poursuit depuis avec un nouveau dessinateur par arc, explorant la solidarité entre les deux héros, mais aussi leurs différences, notamment à l'occasion de l'arrivée d'une nouvelle Supergirl.

En 2004, Clark Kent est rétrogradé au sein du Daily Planet et est désormais chargé des affaires criminelles et de la liaison avec la S.C.U.

Actuellement, plusieurs séries de comics coexistent simultanément : Action Comics, Superman, Adventures of Superman. Chacune a ses propres intrigues et sa propre ligne éditoriale, explorant une facette particulière du héros. Celles-ci peuvent se croiser à la fois sous forme de suite (exemple : la campagne électorale de Lex Luthor dans les numéros de l'année 2000), mais elles ont tendance à fonctionner indépendamment, bien qu'elles fassent partie de la même continuité.

John Byrne est revenu en 2005 sur Superman, prenant en charge les dessins d'Action Comics.

All-Star [modifier]

En 2005, dans la cadre du label All-Star de DC, Grant Morrison et Frank Quitely lancent All-star Superman, une série censée raconter des aventures "iconiques" de Superman, basées sur les éléments du personnage que tout le monde connaît et dégagées de toute continuité.

Principales histoires dans le cadre des séries régulières [modifier]

    * La mort de Superman, suivi de Un monde sans Superman et Le retour de Superman (1992-1993). ("La mort de Superman")

Mini-séries et séries dérivées [modifier]

    * Kingdom Come, mini-série de Mark Waid et Alex Ross, se déroulant dans le futur où un Superman qui s'est retiré doit revenir pour faire face à une nouvelle génération de héros belliqueux.
    * Superman - Red Son (2003) : si la capsule du Kal-El d'avant Crisis était tombée en URSS. Cette uchronie à l'intérieur de l'univers Superman permet de conclure de manière ironique sur les liens entre Lex Luthor et Superman.
    * Superman: Birthright (2003-2004) : raconte les premières années de reporter de Clark Kent, puis son arrivée à Metropolis face à son ancien ami Lex Luthor qui veut profiter de la technologie de Krypton. Cette série a été lancée grâce au succès de Smallville, et constitue la quatrième origine du personnage de Superman (après celles de 1938, 1944 et de 1986). Publiée en France par Semic dans la revue homonyme, puis dans la revue mensuelle Superman de Panini.
    * Superman: Secret Identity ("Identité secrète" en VF), mini-série qui raconte sous la plume de Kurt Busiek et le pinceau de Stuart Immonen l'histoire d'un jeune homme baptisé Clark Kent qui se découvre les pouvoirs de Superman. Publiée en France par Semic en librairies, puis continuée par Panini.
    * Superman: End of Century ("Fin de siècle" en VF) one-shot scénarisé et peint par Stuart Immonen, une aventure de Superman confronté aux histoires de famille et de magie de Lex Luthor et son ex-femme, alors que les festivités du nouveau millénaire approchent. Publiée en France par Semic en librairies.

Caractéristiques [modifier]

Superman est aussi appelé "L'Homme d'Acier" (The Man of Steel) et "L'Homme de Demain" (The Man of Tomorow).

Le symbole sur le torse de Superman forme un S, mais dans l'histoire, il est censé être un symbole kryptonien signifiant "espoir" (on a appris récemment que ce même symbole inversé signifie "Résurrection"). Ce symbole a habituellement un fond jaune, mais il a quelques fois été remplacé par un fond noir quand Superman portait le deuil.

Les pouvoirs de Superman lui sont conférés par le soleil jaune de la Terre dont il absorbe les radiations et grâce à l'attraction terrestre pour certains. Tout kryptonien exposé au soleil de la même manière peut acquérir les mêmes pouvoirs (Superman en a combattu).

Superman est doté :

    * d'une super-force lui permettant de soulever des objets très lourds ou même de déplacer des petits astres.
    * d'une super-vitesse qui lui permet de se déplacer pratiquement aussi vite que la lumière.
    * d'une invulnérabilité grâce à laquelle il peut résister au feu, aux balles, aux hautes pressions, à la chaleur, au froid, aux explosions nucléaires etc ...
    * de la possibilité de voler plus vite que le son.
    * d'une super-vision lui donnant la possibilité de voir à des milliers de kilomètres ou d'observer des choses microscopiques, ainsi qu'au travers des objets (sauf ceux qui sont en plomb) et de voir dans le noir total.
    * d'une thermo-vision lui permettant de chauffer une cible avec ses yeux.
    * d'une super-ouïe grâce à laquelle il entend des conversations dans un rayon de plusieurs centaines de kilomètres de distance, et peut repérer les bruits les plus infimes.
    * d'un super-souffle grâce auquel il peut geler des objets.
    * d'une super-mémoire qui lui permet de se souvenir de tout ce qui lui est arrivé au cours de sa vie, de parler toutes les langues, et de très vite assimiler celles qu'il n'a jamais apprises

Points faibles [modifier]

Le principal point faible de Superman est la kryptonite, fragment de la planète Krypton malheureusement arrivé avec lui sur Terre. Elle existe en différentes couleurs [1] dont certaines ont un effet spécifique, souvent néfaste, sur le super-héros ou d'autres Kryptoniens. Le plomb protège Superman des effets de la kryptonite.

Superman est également vulnérable à la magie.[2]

Il perd ses super-pouvoirs lorsqu'il est sous les radiations d'un soleil rouge [3], tel celui qui éclairait Krypton.

Ses super-pouvoirs ne sont pas diminués sous un soleil orange comme sur la terre. [4]

Superman est également perturbé et vulnérable le jour de son anniversaire kryptonien[5]

Fête célébrée à l'origine toutes les six années kryptoniennes, l'anniversaire kryptonien se traduit chez le super-héros par des dépressions et une perte de contôle de ses pouvoirs.

Notes et références [modifier]

   1.  Les propriétés de 5 types de kryptonite sont décrites dans l'album "Superman et Batman" n°42 , Nouvelle Série de juin 1972, page 13.
   2.  Dans l'album "Superman et Batman" n°59 , Nouvelle Série de novembre 1973, page 26, Superman renonce à se faire immuniser contre la magie.
   3.  Dans l'album "Superman et Batman" n°38, Nouvelle Série de février 1972, page 24, Superman retrouve ses pouvoirs lorsque le Soleil auquel il est exposé change de couleur passant du rouge au jaune.
   4.  Dans l'album "Superman et Batman" n°38 , Nouvelle Série de février 1972, page 6, Superman indique que ses super-pouvoirs "déclinent" du fait de la proximité d'un Soleil orange.
   5.  Dans l'album "Superman et Batman" n°48, Nouvelle Série de décembre 1972, pages 28 et 29, Superman tente sans succès de se débarrasser de ce handicap temporaire qui nous est expliqué.

Entourage [modifier]

    * son chien Krypto, apparu dans certaines bandes dessinées.
    * la journaliste Lois Lane, sa collègue.
    * Perry White, rédacteur en chef du Daily Planet.
    * Jimmy Olsen, photographe au Daily Planet.
    * Lana Lang, son premier amour.
    * Pete Ross, ami d'enfance, ex-mari de Lana.
    * Kara Zor-El, alias Supergirl, sa cousine.

Ennemis de Superman [modifier]
Icône de détail Article détaillé : Ennemis de Superman.

Superman mène une lutte sans fin contre de très nombreux adversaires, qu'il s'agisse de Lex Luthor, qui déteste le surhomme incarné dans Superman, de criminels à superpouvoirs comme Metallo ou le Parasite ou encore d'extraterrestres comme Brainiac ou Darkseid, qui désirent conquérir la Terre.

Dessins animés [modifier]
Superman: Billion Dollar Limited (1942)

    * Dès les années 1940, Superman est un héros de dessins animés projetés dans les cinémas avant les films. Ces dessins animés faisaient parfois partie de la propagande de guerre. En effet, au cours de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, dans ces films courts, il combat souvent des méchants Japonais. Mais dans bien d'autres épisodes, il affrontait aussi des savants fous à Metropolis.

    * À partir de 1996, Superman apparaît dans des dessins animés en tant que seul héros (dans Superman, l'Ange de Métropolis) ou aux côtés d'autres super-héros de l'éditeur DC (dans La Ligue des Justiciers) tels que Batman, Green Lantern, Wonder Woman, Flash, etc.

Voir [modifier]

    * Image de Superman dans la série des années 1940.

Cinéma [modifier]

Les premières apparitions de Superman au cinéma (hors dessins animés) ont été :

    * 1948: Superman un serial en 15 chapitres réalisé par Spencer Gordon Bennett et Thomas Car, interprété par Kirk Alyn et Noel Neill.
    * 1950: Atom Man vs. Superman un serial en 15 parties interprété par Kirk Alyn, Noel Neill et Lyle Talbot.
    * 1951: Superman and the Mole Men, film interprété par George Reeves et Phyllis Coates.

Christopher Reeve, décédé le 10 octobre 2004, incarna au grand écran le personnage de Superman en 1978 dans

    * Superman (1978).

Il tint également le rôle dans les suites

    * Superman II, L'Aventure Continue (1980),
    * Superman III (1983)

et

    * Superman IV, La Quête pour la paix (1987).

En 2006, Brandon Routh incarna à son tour le personnage de Superman dans le film

    * Superman Returns réalisé par Bryan Singer.

Pour l'anecdote, Superman Returns se passe chronologiquement entre Superman II et Superman III.

Nombre de projets ont été abandonnés dont Superman Lives, un projet de l'Homme d'Acier datant de 1998 qui aurait été réalisé par Tim Burton et dont le rôle principal aurait été tenu par Nicolas Cage.

Acteurs des films [modifier]

Superman/Clark Kent :

    * Christopher Reeve (4)
    * Brandon Routh (1)
    * Jeff East (1) (Clark Kent jeune)
    * Stephan Bender (1) (Clark Kent jeune)

Télévision [modifier]

    * The New Adventures of Superman. La série télévisée des années 1950 montrait les aventures de l'homme d'acier dans un aspect proche de celui de la BD de la même époque. Le personnage principal était interprété par George Reeves. (George Reeves en Superman)
    * Loïs et Clark : les nouvelles aventures de Superman. Cette série est centrée sur la relation entre Clark Kent (alias Superman) et Lois Lane à partir de l'arrivée du premier à Metropolis.
    * Smallville. L'intrigue : la découverte par le jeune Clark Kent de ses pouvoirs. Cette série suscite plusieurs controverses à propos du respect de la mythologie que le grand public connaît essentiellement par les films. Elle mélange efficacement les deux origines de Superman (ainsi que la BD Superboy des années 1940) tout en y ajoutant des éléments nouveaux concernant la mythologie kryptonienne, ainsi que des personnages inédits.

Jeux vidéos [modifier]

Jeux Superman [modifier]

    * -1993 : Superman: The Man Of Steel (Master System), ressortit en 2002 sur X-Box.
    * -1994 : The Death and Return of Superman (Megadrive et Super Nintendo).
    * -1999 : Superman (Nintendo 64).
    * -2002 : Superman : Shadow of Apokolips (Playstation 2), ressortit en 2003 sur Gamecube.
    * -2006 : Superman Returns, le jeu adapté du film (X-box 360, Playstation 2, Gamecube, X-box, Playstation Portable et Nintendo DS).
    * -2006 : Superman Returns: La Forteresse de Solitude (GameBoy Advance)

Jeux avec Superman et autres personnages [modifier]

Avec la Ligue de Justice d'Amérique [modifier]

    * -1995 : Justice League Task Force (Megadrive et Super Nintendo)
    * -2002 : Justice League : Injustice For All (GameBoy Advance)
    * -2003 : Justice League Chronicles (GameBoy Advance)
    * -2006 : Héros de la Ligue des Justiciers (Playstation 2, X-box, Nintendo DS, Playstation Portable et GameBoy Advance)

Autres [modifier]

    * -2008 : Mortal Kombat vs DC Universe aux côtés de nombreux personnages de l'Univers DC face aux personnages de la saga de jeu vidéo Mortal Kombat

Jeux avec Superman comme personnage non-jouable [modifier]

    * -2006 : Héros de la lique des Justiciers: Flash, mettant en scène Flash qui peut appeler Superman et d'autres membres de la ligue des justiciers d'Amérique pour l'aider.
    * -2009 : DC Universe Online


Superman
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Superman (ea Kal El) er sögupersóna í teiknimyndablöum eftir Jerry Siegel og Joe Shuster. Í sögunni er hann ofurmenni frá annarri plánetu. Hann kemur til Jararinnar eftir a heimaplánetan hans eiileggst. Seinna voru gerir ættir byggir á teiknimyndablöunum og fljótlega fylgdu 4 bíómyndir á eftir. Nveri hafa veri sndir ættir byggir á æskuárum Superman sem heita í höfui á bænum sem hann ólst upp á, Smalleville. Superman er me einstaka krafta, frægastur af eim er hæfileikin til a fljúga.




Superman, il cui vero nome è Clark Kent/Kal-El, è un personaggio dei fumetti creato da Jerry Siegel e Joe Shuster nel 1938, pubblicato dalla DC Comics.

Un uomo in grado di sollevare un'auto, con un costume blu addosso ed un mantello rosso sulle spalle, contornato da un gruppo di passanti impauriti: è questa la prima immagine di Superman, quella con cui fa il suo esordio nelle edicole statunitensi.

Il personaggio, però, anche per scelta dei suoi stessi autori, non è un Superuomo in senso nietzscheano, ma incarna più il mito emersoniano di un uomo rappresentativo delle nostre smanie di potenza, un uomo dotato di superpoteri, che mette al servizio della collettività. Così può iniziare la storia di quello che un tempo i lettori italiani in pantaloni corti e maglietta a righe orizzontali conoscevano con il nome di Nembo Kid, il ragazzo delle nuvole, un personaggio dei fumetti che ha fatto sognare - in fin dei conti - più di una generazione.

Ma occorre fare un passo indietro e fornire qualche istruzione per l'uso per la comprensione del fenomeno Superman.
Indice
[nascondi]

    * 1 Le origini
    * 2 I fumetti in Italia
    * 3 Nascita e poteri
          o 3.1 I poteri Golden Age
                + 3.1.1 Super-Forza
                + 3.1.2 Super-Udito
                + 3.1.3 Super-Soffio
                + 3.1.4 Poteri Vocali
                + 3.1.5 Poteri mentali e intellettuali
    * 4 La storia
          o 4.1 Il Superman classico
          o 4.2 L'era moderna
    * 5 Il nome kryptoniano
    * 6 Altri media
          o 6.1 Cinema
                + 6.1.1 I cinque film
          o 6.2 Pubblicità
          o 6.3 Televisione
                + 6.3.1 Telefilm
                + 6.3.2 Cartoni animati
          o 6.4 Videogiochi
    * 7 Note
    * 8 Voci correlate
          o 8.1 Altri personaggi DC
          o 8.2 Altro
    * 9 Altri progetti
    * 10 Collegamenti esterni

Le origini [modifica]

La fantascienza ha sempre avuto una forte presa sui lettori, di ogni tempo ed età: racconti di mondi lontani, popolati da esseri molto diversi da noi per aspetto fisico, oppure a noi simili nell'aspetto ma differenti nella filosofia di vita o per il fatto di possedere poteri particolari; racconti di viaggi nello spazio profondo, di guerre tra civiltà, di mostri provenienti dai più nascosti angoli dell'Universo.

Tutto questo era ben noto a Jerry Siegel, giovane studente della Glenville High School dove dirigeva una delle prime fanzine di fantascienza e dove, nel 1930, conosce Joe Shuster, un giovane proveniente dal Canada e con il quale stringe una profonda amicizia.

Attirati dalle potenzialità del nascente medium del fumetto, i due rielaborano il concetto del mondo alieno con quello del Super Uomo, fino agli anni cinquanta incarnato dal pugile Primo Carnera, ovvero di una persona che, per poteri e carisma, si erge sulla folla, ma non vi si sottrae per sentirsi più uomo che super, sola e unica in un intero pianeta, dando così origine, nel 1934, a Superman, il primo fra tutti i supereroi.

Inizia, così, un lungo percorso ad ostacoli nel tentativo di vendere il personaggio ad una qualche casa editrice, fino a che nel 1938 è la National, oggi DC Comics, a credere nelle possibilità del personaggio e ad acquisirne i diritti di pubblicazione, recentemente tornati in parte agli eredi di Siegel dopo una lunghissima vertenza giudiziaria, non risolta completamente.[1]

Il personaggio esordisce, così, sullo storico n. 1 di Action Comics (10 giugno 1938), mentre il 16 gennaio del 1939 inizia ad essere pubblicato sulle daily strip, mentre le tavole domenicali esordiscono il 5 novembre del 1939, dopo una tavola di assaggio la settimana prima.

I fumetti in Italia [modifica]

Superman esordisce in Italia sugli Albi dell'audacia (il n. 19 del 2 luglio 1939) come Ciclone, l'Uomo d'acciaio, per poi diventare Ciclone, L'Uomo Fenomeno su L'Audace (1940). In questo periodo si alternano le storie di Siegel e Shuster a quelle realizzate da Vincenzo e Zenobio Baggioli. Appena dopo la guerra, attorno al 1946, le strisce di Superman vengono riprese dalla Casa Editrice Milano, poi Edizioni Mondiali, in una serie di albi della Collezione Uomo Mascherato, divenuta dal n. 67 Collezione Uomo D'Acciaio in onore del suo personaggio di maggior spicco, proprio Superman, qui chiamato semplicemente "Uomo D'Acciaio". Il personaggio è infatti presente in 27 albi, ed in appendice, con storie a puntate, negli ultimi numeri. Inoltre la stessa casa editrice pubblica nell'aprile del 1947 anche il giornale Urrà, dove è ancora Superman a essere il protagonista principale.

Il personaggio passa quindi sotto le cure della Mondadori, che lo propone a partire dal 16 maggio 1954 anzitutto sui mitici Albi del falco, una pubblicazione prima quattordicinale, poi settimanale, che dedicherà i primi 30 numeri esclusivamente all'uomo d'acciaio, alterandone però il nome in Nembo Kid (1954-1966), probabilmente per eludere i diritti sul personaggio. Questo creò non pochi problemi ai traduttori ed ai grafici italiani, costretti a minuziosi lavori di correzione su copertine e vignette, per eliminare la S dal petto e dal mantello, che in tal modo riportavano solo uno scudo vuoto (che nei primi albi era rosso, dal n. 19 diventò giallo). Dopo un breve periodo sulla testata Superman Nembo Kid (1966-1967), approda ad un quattordicinale tutto suo chiamato semplicemente Superman (1967-1970). La numerazione degli albi non riparte però ad ogni nuova serie, ma prosegue ininterrottamente per tutti i sedici anni della gestione Mondadori. Nei numeri successivi su questa testata apparvero anche tutti gli altri eroi DC: Batman e Robin, Flash, Lanterna Verde, Supergirl, ecc. Tale serie, dopo vari cambiamenti nelle dimensioni e nel nome della testata, terminerà nel marzo 1970 con il n. 651.

Tra il 1971 e il 1974 sarà la Williams a gestire in Italia i diritti del personaggio con ben tre serie regolari, seppur brevi. Dal 1976 al 1984 sarà invece l'editore Cenisio a stampare Superman nel Bel Paese. Dopo un vuoto di nove anni nei quali la Rizzoli ha stampato in maniera irregolare inserti allegati alla rivista Corto Maltese, dal 1993 l'Uomo d'Acciaio è tornato in Italia edito dalla Play Press, conquistandosi anche una collana personale da edicola (Superman, chiusa con il numero doppio 124/125 per un totale di 119 albi di cui 6 doppi) e una collana di recuperi di storie meno recenti a partire dalla miniserie Man of Steel di John Byrne che segnò il rilancio del personaggio dopo Crisi sulle Terre infinite (Superman Classic, chiusa col numero 43 dopo 40 albi di cui 3 doppi). Con la chiusura di queste testate Superman venne distribuito solo in fumetteria con volumi che raccolgono archi narrativi e sulla rivista DC Universe fino al 2005. Dal luglio dello stesso anno, il kryptoniano è tornato nelle edicole con la rivista Superman Magazine, durata solo 8 numeri, l'ultimo dei quali uscito nel maggio 2006.

Con l'abbandono della Play Press dei diritti editoriali sulla DC nel giugno dello stesso anno[2], dall'agosto 2006 la Planeta DeAgostini, divisione editoriale spagnola della De Agostini, ha varato la testata settimanale Le avventure di Superman, che ristampa le storie del supereroe a partire da Man of Steel. La collana si è chiusa, come programmato dall'editore fin all'inizio, con il n. 40 nell'agosto 2007, dopo alcuni ritardi nella pubblicazione.[3] Sempre Planeta nel giugno 2007 ha lanciato la collana mensile Superman, che presenta storie inedite in italiano.

Nascita e poteri [modifica]

Nato sul pianeta Krypton, venne inviato, infante, sulla Terra prima che il suo pianeta natale esplodesse. Il padre, Jor-El (il nome apparve inizialmente come Jor-L nelle strisce a fumetti quotidiane), aveva fatto alcuni studi sulla nostra stella, il Sole, e aveva scoperto che le particolari radiazioni da questa emesse potevano rendere Kal-El (il nome kryptoniano di Superman; Kal-L nelle strisce) praticamente invulnerabile.

Giunto sulla Terra, la sua navicella venne ritrovata da Jonathan e Martha Kent, che, inteneriti dalla piccola figura, lo adottano e lo crescono nella piccola cittadina di Smallville come un figlio, chiamandolo Clark. Proprio in questo paesino della periferia statunitense, Clark sviluppa i suoi fantastici poteri:

    * forza sovrumana
    * velocità (in particolari condizioni può superare la velocità della luce, pur se non sembra riuscire ad essere più veloce dei vari Flash)
    * vista a raggi X;
    * vista calorifica (un fascio laser dagli occhi in grado di surriscaldare e fondere oggetti e ustionare le persone, di cui Superman può controllare l'intensità);
    * invulnerabilità (parziale: resiste a tutto, ma non alla kryptonite e alla magia);
    * volo (curiosamente, nel periodo Siegel-Shuster e quello subito successivo, Superman non era in grado di volare, ma solo di compiere salti enormi)

Le sue avventure si svolgono principalmente a Metropolis, una grande città dove, come giornalista, lavora nella redazione del Daily Planet, insieme a Lois Lane, che poi diventerà sua moglie, e all'amico Jimmy Olsen.

I poteri Golden Age [modifica]

Lo sviluppo di Superman durante la Golden Age fu incontrollato, e continuò fino agli anni ottanta quando si iniziò a limitarne le possibilità, almeno fino all'introduzione delle limitazioni note a tutt'oggi. In questo periodo d'oro del personaggio, i suoi poteri erano praticamente illimitati:

    * poteva viaggiare per milioni di anni luce in brevi intervalli di tempo (possibilità, oggi, lasciata al solo Lanterna Verde, che comunque non raggiunge le velocità del Superman Golden Age);
    * poteva attraversare le stelle senza subire alcun danno;
    * era in grado di viaggiare avanti ed indietro nel tempo superando, a piacere, la velocità della luce;
    * poteva spostare pianeti di qualsiasi dimensione e massa;
    * era in grado di far vibrare il proprio corpo così velocemente da rendersi invisibile, al pari di Jay Garrick, il primo Flash.

Questi poteri, però, vengono sovente ricordati e, alcuni di questi, sono recuperati in storie immaginarie o in particolari condizioni.

Ad esempio, durante gli anni novanta, nel periodo in cui il cartoonist scozzese Grant Morrison, insieme ai disegnatori Howard Porter (matite) e John Dell (chine), durante il suo lungo ciclo sulla JLA, prima concesse a Superman la possibilità di cambiare l'orbita della Luna, anche se ciò fu possibile solo grazie al fatto che aveva ottenuto dei poteri energetici simili a quelli di Raggio; quindi, durante il crossover One Million, prima introdusse il Superman di un lontano futuro, che aveva molte delle caratteristiche su indicate (o delle sezioni successive) ed un livello di potere tipico dell'era Golden Age (in particolare era in grado di attraversare le barriere del tempo semplicemente prendendo a pugni le barriere stesse!), quindi raccontò di come Superman, dopo aver attraversato in lungo ed in largo l'universo, entrò nel Sole per riposarsi della sua lunga vita.

Super-Forza [modifica]

La prima dimostrazione della sua forza avvenne sin dalla copertina del primo numero di Action Comics (Giugno 1938) dove Superman solleva sopra la sua testa un'auto con tutti i suoi occupanti all'interno: erano, probabilmente, dei criminali che stavano fuggendo di fronte a questo terribile essere alieno. Questa immagine, entrata nell'iconografia mondiale, viene in varie occasioni omaggiata da molti altri supereroi, ritratti in posizioni simili.

A quel punto le dimostrazioni di forza si susseguono una dietro l'altra, con unico limite la fantasia di Siegel e degli autori che gli sono succeduti: ad esempio, nella primavera del 1940, regge i palazzi di Metropolis, scossi da un terribile terremoto, causato da un incredibile essere in grado di generare questi violenti eventi naturali; nel 1941, poi, nuota attraverso un torrente in piena utilizzando una sola mano, mentre sorregge una villetta con la mano libera; infine, per deviare il corso delle acque, scava un'enorme fossato con le sue mani in pochissimi istanti.
La forza di Superman gli permette di sollevare un palazzo.

Nel 1942, Superman si impossessa di alcune nocche d'ottone e frantuma il vile strumento tanto facilmente da far sembrare il metallo del semplice gesso; si apre la strada attraverso il fianco di una montagna; mentre è aggrappato ad un treno in movimento, riesce ad aprire la finestra di un pullman. A settembre la sua forza è cresciuta così tanto da riuscire a strappare, a mani nude, i picchi di due montagne gemelle!

L'anno dopo, su Action Comics n. 62 (There'll always be a Superman), quando inizia ad avvertire il crollo di un'immensa caverna sotterranea, con la possente forza dei suoi muscoli riesce a scongiurare il disastro riempiendo la grotta stessa con migliaia di rocce, trasportandole sotto la superficie dell'oceano. È anche riuscito a colpire una palla da baseball così forte da farle compiere il giro del mondo!

Nel 1946, poi, Superman utilizza la sua super-forza per richiudere una falla nello scafo di una nave da carico che rischiava l'affondamento, saldandovi sopra dei piatti d'acciaio resi caldi fino alla fusione dal veloce sfregamento delle sue mani sugli oggetti stessi. Più tardi ci si riferì a questo processo come all'applicazione di una super-frizione.

Il 1947 è poi l'anno in cui Superman riesce a trasformare una manciata di carbone in lucenti diamanti (capacità riportata sul cineschermo nel film Superman III):

    L'incalcolabile pressione esercitata dal possente pugno dell'Uomo d'Acciaio duplica il lavoro di eoni per fondere l'opalescente carbone nella traslucida perfezione del diamante scintillante!
    (da Action Comics n. 115, traduzione non ufficiale)

Nel 1948 utilizza la super-pressione dell'unghia del suo pollice per tagliare una lastra di metallo, mentre nel 1949, senza alcun aiuto, ha creato un sole per il pianeta Uuz facendo collidere una contro l'altra le sue due lune disabitate e attivando il fuoco atomico utilizzando delle meteore vaganti.

Nel novembre del 1953 Superman deve affrontare una delle più difficili sfide della sua carriera: un'enorme stella nera sta attraversando il sistema solare, causando una velocissima rotazione della Terra intorno al proprio asse. Dopo aver forgiato una gigantesca trivella metallica, Superman inizia a perforare la Terra stessa fino a raggiungere le calde rocce rosse che si trovano sotto la crosta terrestre. Utilizzando il suo stesso corpo come uno scalpello, scava un canale che porta il mare al foro che ha realizzato nella Terra. Quando l'acqua marina sgorga attraverso il canale per andare a bagnare le rocce nel centro della Terra, il risultato è un getto di vapore che in pratica diventa un gigantesco motore a reazione, che si oppone all'eccessiva rotazione terrestre, fino a riportarla al valore normale. A questo punto Superman, come suo solito, rimette a posto le cose chiudendo il canale scavato.

È l'ultima grande impresa per l'Uomo d'Acciaio; infatti, dopo ciò, resta poco altro: nel 1957, su Superman n. 110 riesce a scagliare nello spazio un pianeta disabitato e nel 1958 provoca un terremoto battendo semplicemente le mani. Nel marzo del 1965, infine, cattura l'astronave della Squadra Anti-Superman e la lancia in una galassia lontana anni luce dalla Terra.

Super-Udito [modifica]

Oggi il super-udito di Superman - normale udito umano moltiplicato per incalcolabili migliaia di volte - permette a Superman di individuare i passi di una formica a 1.000 miglia di distanza o rintracciare una sorgente di onde sonore attraverso milioni di miglia di spazio interstellare.

Nelle sue primissime avventure, comunque, Superman non aveva speciali superpoteri, ed il super-udito che impiega oggi è il risultato di una graduale evoluzione attraverso le storie di molti anni. Il termine "super-udito" appare nelle cronache dell'autunno 1939. Nondimeno, durante le prime due decadi della carriera di Superman, i testi impiegavano anche altre espressioni per descriverlo come "udito super-acuto", "udito super-sensibile" o "udito iper-acuto".

Nel gennaio 1939 Superman viene descritto come un uomo che ha "orecchie sensibili" le quali gli permettono di udire cose che gli uomini normali non possono udire.

Nel novembre 1940 le orecchie super-sensibili di Superman gli permettono di intercettare le onde radio così che egli possa ascoltare le notizie radiofoniche senza aver bisogno di un apparecchio radio. Nel 1942 il suo udito super-sensibile gli permette di rintracciare l'origine delle onde radio.

Nel giugno 1946 l'udito iper-acuto di Superman gli permette di rintracciare una chiamata telefonica attraverso i cavi del telefono percorrendoli fino alla sorgente.

Dal 1950, Il super udito di Superman lo rende capace di sentire il lieve rumore di una macchina a 1.500 km di distanza. Nel 1953, manifesta l'abilità di focalizzare il suo udito in modo che, volando sopra Metropolis, può origliare una conversazione in un appartamento.

Nel gennaio 1960, il suo super udito gli permette di rilevare onde sonore dalla loro sorgente fondamentale: una nave spaziale a milioni di km dalla Terra (Action Comics n. 260), e dal dicembre dello stesso anno, Superman è capace di udire il Big Ben a Londra che batte le ore mentre egli è nel deserto del Sahara.

Super-Soffio [modifica]

Come gli altri super-poteri di Superman, il super-soffio e poteri collegati hanno subìto un continuo sviluppo ed esaltazione. Un testo datato agosto 1939 nota che può trattenere il respiro sott'acqua per ore.

Nel gennaio 1940 egli spegne una torcia in fiamme con un poderoso soffio del suo respiro.

Un testo datato marzo 1941 rileva che i polmoni del supereroe possono sopportare qualsiasi pressione atmosferica, non importa quanto grande, e un testo successivo osserva che Superman può nuotare in profondità per migliaia di metri, giù fino al letto dell'oceano, senza accusare alcun malessere.

Nel giugno 1941 Superman estingue un incendio furioso con un'incredibile soffiata e nel 1947 spegne un falò aspirandone le fiamme.

Nel novembre 1947, quando il Giocattolaio tenta di fuggire a cavalcioni di un cavallino di legno sospinto da un razzo, lo riporta sulla Terra con una profonda inspirazione d'aria.

Nel marzo 1949, dopo essere stato rinchiuso in un razzo spaziale da Lex Luthor, Superman usa il suo super-soffio al posto del carburante del razzo per lanciarlo nella stratosfera. «E con il super-soffio,» fa notare il testo, «l'Uomo d'Acciaio lancia il missile in cielo!». Superman ripete una simile impresa nel luglio 1960, arrampicandosi sul motore spento di un jet rimasto a mezz'aria e usando il suo super-soffio come propulsione per guidarlo ad un atterraggio sicuro.

Nel settembre 1949 Superman estingue un incendio chimico aspirando tutta l'aria attorno ad esso. «Le fiamme micidiali non sono una minaccia per Superman,» dice il testo, «che spegne tirando via tutta l'aria della stanza nei suoi poderosi polmoni!»

Nel luglio 1953 nota che riesce a stare sott'acqua quasi indefinitamente.

Nel luglio 1954, nello spazio profondo, Superman estingue una stella con una folata del suo super-respiro.(Superman n. 91)

Nel luglio 1959 ferma un'enorme onda di maremoto congelandola in un iceberg con una soffiata.

Poteri Vocali [modifica]

Come per gli altri suoi super-poteri, quelli vocali e di ventriloquo sono stati continuamente magnificati e esaltati nel corso della sua carriera. Nel 1941, Superman utilizza del semplice ventriloquio per distogliere l'attenzione dei criminali che tengono in ostaggio Lois Lane.

Nel marzo 1942, Superman mostra l'abilità di imitare le altri voci quando abilmente altera la sua voce così che sembri esattamente quella di un capobanda. Nel settembre dello stesso anno, allo scopo di avvertire la popolazione di Metropolis di un'invasione nazista, grida un avviso con un volume così alto che la sua voce si propaga per chilometri.

Nel maggio 1943 conduce la polizia in un nascondiglio sotterraneo trasmettendo la sua voce con l'aiuto dei suoi super-poteri tanto che la materializza nelle radio della polizia.

Nel 1947 frantuma un blocco di ghiaccio da mille tonnellate in minuscoli frammenti con un grido poderoso.

Nel gennaio 1950, Superman ventriloqua per una considerevole distanza allo scopo di far parlare una sua finta immagine e allo scopo di materializzare la sua voce dalla radio dell'auto della polizia. Questa tecnica, che in seguito sarà nota come "super-ventriloquismo", permette a Superman di trasmettere la sua voce per distanze immense, tuttavia facendosi ascoltare soltanto a coloro che egli indirizzava.

Nel luglio 1950 uno dei super-urli di Superman è misurato oltre 1.000.000 di decibel (Superman n. 65). Un testo successivo osserva che «il grido fortissimo di Superman echeggia come migliaia di temporali nel cielo,» mentre un altro osserva che «la sua super-voce risuona come 1.000 altoparlanti,» permettendo a chiunque nel raggio di otto chilometri di ascoltarla.

Nell'agosto 1950, mentre è con Lois Lane in un ufficio al Daily Planet, Superman usa il ventriloquio per far arrivare la voce di Clark Kent nel telefono così che Lois crederà che Kent e Superman sono due persone differenti.

Nel settembre 1955, Superman riduce un diamante in polvere usando i poteri vocali per emettere note musicali estremamente acute.

Nel luglio 1961 Superman conversa con Supergirl da un'immensa distanza tramite il super-ventriloquio, una tecnica di diffusione della voce che permette di conversare da grandi distanze senza essere intercettati da nessuno nel mezzo.

Nel luglio 1962, Superman richiama Krypto il Supercane per mezzo del super-ventriloquismo, ma nel novembre 1963 egli dice di chiamare Krypto tramite il ventriloquio supersonico, che gli permette di diffondere la sua voce con una frequenza così alta che soltanto l'udito super-canino di Krypto può sentirla.

Poteri mentali e intellettuali [modifica]

Insieme agli altri suoi superpoteri, Superman possiede anche superpoteri intellettuali e mentali. Nella primavera del 1940 Clark Kent mostra l'abilità di fermare temporaneamente il proprio battito cardiaco. In diverse occasioni, negli anni successivi, Superman usa questa capacità eccezionale allo scopo di fingersi morto. Superman n. 21 allude al temporaneo arresto del suo battito cardiaco e al suo stato di incoscienza, e World's Finest Comics n. 54 cita la capacità di Superman di controllare la propria attività cardiaca allo scopo di simulare la cessazione dei segni vitali. Il controllo del proprio battito cardiaco sembrerebbe ridurre il controllo mentale delle proprie funzioni fisiche, ma nella sua chiara descrizione di tale capacità, Superman la descrive come un "controllo super muscolare." «Per farvi credere che io sia "morto",» egli fa osservare a un gruppo di criminali catturati nel gennaio 1958, «ho usato il controllo super muscolare per fermare il mio cuore dal battere, proprio come sto facendo adesso per farlo battere più velocemente e più forte, ascoltate!».

Nell'estate del 1940, Superman è descritto come possessore di una memoria fotografica.

Nel gennaio 1941 cura Lois Lane della sua amnesia per mezzo dell'ipnosi e un mese dopo, come Clark Kent, la ipnotizza facendole dimenticare le super capacità che egli sta per impiegare così che può salvarla da una cabina in fiamme nel ruolo di Clark Kent senza rivelare la sua doppia identità.

Nel gennaio 1942 Superman è in grado di conversare speditamente con una sirena nonostante la sua lingua gli sia completamente sconosciuta perché la sua intelligenza avanzata gli fa comprendere istantaneamente il suo strano linguaggio. (Superman n. 14)

Nel luglio 1943 è descritto come possessore di un "super cervello", ma testi successivi riferiscono che Superman ha un "super intelletto".

Nel gennaio 1945 il supereroe visita la biblioteca pubblica e legge una montagna di libri e articoli su di sé in soli cinque minuti, e nel novembre 1945 è descritto nel leggere un libro di 500 pagine in dieci secondi netti.

Nel settembre 1947 Superman è descritto per avere una super percezione che lo avverte che qualcuno lo sta osservando.

Nel luglio 1948, dimostra l'abilità di risolvere equazioni matematiche complesse con la velocità e la precisione di un potente computer.

Nel luglio 1950 la super intelligenza di Superman permette di risolvere, in pochi secondi, un problema matematico complesso mentre il cervello elettronico del Metropolis Science Foundation impiega dieci minuti.

Nel luglio 1951, Clark Kent memorizza un libro di 400 pagine in pochi secondi, e nel settembre dello stesso anno commenta che, per sua convenienza, ha memorizzato l'intero elenco telefonico di Metropolis.

Nel marzo 1953, Superman è descritto come possessore di una "super memoria."

Nel marzo 1954, la sua super intelligenza gli permette di risolvere una complicata equazione che comporta di affrontare nozioni matematiche sconosciute agli uomini comuni.

Nel marzo 1955 Superman memorizza tutti i libri esistenti sulla chirurgia dell'occhio per eseguire una complicata operazione oculistica.

Nell'aprile 1955 viene descritto nell'aver impiegato la sua memoria fotografica per memorizzare tutto l'archivio del Daily Planet.

Nel maggio 1956 Superman è descritto con la capacità di rievocare ogni azione della sua vita con la sua "memoria sovrumana". Testi successivi riferiscono del "potere di memoria assoluta" o memoria "total-recall", facendo notare che permette all'Uomo d'Acciaio di ricordare ogni cosa detta o fatta.

Nel gennaio 1958 Superman è in grado di confrontare le impronte digitali di un sospettato con quelle nello schedario di Washington, D.C., per aver usato la super memoria per immagazzinare l'intero archivio delle impronte digitali del F.B.I.

Nel giugno 1958, mentre sta rilassandosi nella sua Fortezza della solitudine, Superman sconfigge un grosso robot che ha costruito in una partita di super scacchi, nonostante il robot, che ha un super cervello elettronico, possa pensare e giocare alla velocità della luce e prevedere un milione di mosse alla volta.

Nel novembre 1960 è descritto nell'aver appreso il Kryptoniano, la lingua di Krypton, tramite il suo potere di memoria total recall.

Un testo datato agosto 1963 fa notare che Superman possiede il super intelletto delle venti menti più brillanti al mondo messe insieme.

La storia [modifica]

Come per tutti i supereroi della DC Comics, anche la storia di Superman è da dividere in due sezioni principali, una "pre-Crisis" ed una "post-Crisis", dove con Crisis si intende Crisis on Infinite Earths (Crisi sulle Terre infinite), il grande crossover che la casa editrice di New York decise di realizzare, all'inizio degli anni ottanta per mettere ordine ai molti mondi paralleli che i suoi autori avevano creato in mezzo secolo di vita editoriale. Esistono, quindi, due continuity cui tener conto, con personaggi e storie differenti e, in entrambi i casi, grandi autori che hanno scritto grandi storie. Molti dei personaggi e delle storie pre-Crisis sono stati successivamente recuperati e costantemente aggiornati nelle origini e nei rapporti con i vari eroi dell'Universo DC.

Il Superman classico [modifica]

Il pianeta Krypton sta per esplodere a causa di alcune variazioni nella conformazione geologica degli strati interni del terreno. L'unico ad accorgersene è Jor-El, che prova, con insistenza, a convincere il consiglio del pianeta ad evacuarlo in tempo prima della distruzione imminente. Il consiglio, però, non crede all'allarmismo di Jor-El, che così decide di salvare suo figlio, Kal-El, da morte certa, sistemandolo in una capsula spaziale puntata verso la Terra. È questo il pianeta ideale per il piccolo, poiché il sole giallo intorno cui ruota gli conferirà strabilianti poteri.
Il simbolo di Superman.

Dopo il doloroso addio della madre, Lara, la capsula parte proprio poco prima dell'esplosione, per atterrare negli Stati Uniti, nei pressi della fattoria dei Kent, due anziani contadini del Kansas che non hanno figli. I due decidono, allora, di tenere il piccolo come figlio loro e perciò lo lasciano vicino alla porta di un orfanotrofio per poi tornare poco dopo ad adottarlo. Ben presto i due scoprono che il bambino è dotato di superpoteri.

Il piccolo, che chiamano Clark, crescendo sviluppa una coscienza sociale molto forte, decidendo di mettere i suoi poteri al servizio della giustizia: indossa allora il manto di Superboy e così facendo ispirerà alcuni giovani del XXX secolo a formare il supergruppo della Legione dei Supereroi.

Giunto alla maggiore età, i suoi genitori muoiono, ed il ragazzo decide di andare a Metropolis, la vicina città, dove trova lavoro come giornalista presso il Daily Star, che presto verrà sostituito nelle storie dal Daily Planet. È qui che incontra Lois Lane, che molto spesso salverà da situazioni estremamente pericolose.

All'era pre-Crisis appartengono anche personaggi importanti come Lana Lang e Pete Ross, amici d'infanzia di Clark, il direttore del giornale Perry White, Jimmy Olsen, la cui serie, Superman's Pal Jimmy Olsen, sarà il punto di partenza del Quarto Mondo di Jack Kirby. Inoltre è di questo periodo la creazione di Lori Lemaris, regina di Atlantide e moglie di Aquaman nell'attuale continuity, e che avrà una fugace storia d'amore con Clark al tempo del college.

Il Luthor di questa continuity è, invece, un folle scienziato con il desiderio di dominare il mondo, che spesso si scontra con Superman e viene puntualmente sconfitto da quest'ultimo. Altri nemici, ideati proprio in questo periodo d'oro del fumetto, sono Bizzarro, una copia imperfetta di Superman, ideata proprio da Lex Luthor; quindi Brainiac, un androide extraterrestre (Coluano) deciso a conquistare il mondo e uccidere Superman stesso; Darkseid, uno dei Nuovi Dei di Kirby, nato sulle pagine del già citato Superman's Pal Jimmy Olsen; infine il più bizzarro di tutti, quel Mister Mxyzptlk che è un folletto proveniente dalla 5.a dimensione, con incommensurabili poteri e sempre deciso a fare dispetti agli abitanti di Metropolis e a Superman, che per rimandarlo indietro è costretto a fargli dire il suo nome al contrario.

Il Superman pre-Crisis finisce con la storia Che cosa è successo all'Uomo del Domani?, considerata da critica ed appassionati la storia migliore sull'Uomo d'Acciaio. Scritta da Alan Moore per i disegni di Curt Swan e George Pérez, racconta di come Superman affronta l'ultimo assalto dei suoi nemici, che lo costringe ad uccidere Mxyzptlk e gli fa prendere una letale e definitiva decisione: entrare spontaneamente in una stanza contenente un esemplare di kryptonite d'oro.

L'era moderna [modifica]

L'era post-Crisis inizia nel 1986 con la miniserie Man of Steel di John Byrne, che rinarra le origini in maniera molto coerente e in linea con le richieste della casa editrice susseguenti a Crisis. In questa miniserie Luthor diventa un miliardario più ossessionato dalla figura di Superman e desideroso di ottenere per sé il potere (cosa che otterrà, diventando Presidente degli Stati Uniti d'America), che non il folle criminale delle origini (entrambi questi Luthor saranno presenti in un'altra importante opera di Byrne, Generazioni, nella quale si sviluppa una storia alternativa di Superman, Batman e degli altri eroi).

Altre importanti differenze con l'era classica sono la mancata morte dei Kent, i genitori adottivi di Superman, che lo crescono e lo accudiscono nella loro fattoria e che sono diventati protagonisti di molte storie; in questo contesto, il giovane Clark non è mai diventato Superboy. Questa scelta narrativa porta alla DC Comics un problema fondamentale: l'esistenza della Legione dei Supereroi.

Questo gruppo del XXX secolo, infatti, era giunto fino al XX per conoscere Superboy, l'eroe cui si erano ispirati nella creazione del supergruppo, ed arruolarlo tra le loro fila. Nascono, così, dapprima sulla testata Action Comics, successivamente su una a loro dedicata, delle storie con Superboy e Supergirl che spesso sono fondamentali nelle vittorie del gruppo. Risultava pertanto evidente la necessità di far scomparire Superboy, ma anche di dare una coerenza narrativa alle origini della Legione. Byrne e Paul Levitz inventano un universo-tasca in cui è sopravvissuta la Terra-prima, quella di Superboy, e dove il Cacciatore del Tempo ha dirottato il gruppo in tutti questi anni di avventure. La necessità di dover concludere questo canale lasciato aperto dalla gestione del dopo Crisis ha costretto i due sceneggiatori a dover realizzare questa storia, che però non chiuse completamente i postumi di Crisis: era, infatti, necessario eliminare la "Terra-prima", e per fare ciò Byrne introdusse la nuova Supergirl, un essere protoplasmico ideato dal Lex Luthor di Terra-prima con impiantati i ricordi di Lana Lang. Questa Supergirl era stata inviata sulla Terra per contattare Superman ed aiutare gli ultimi terrestri di Terra-prima a sconfiggere tre criminali kryptoniani, fatti sfuggire dalla Zona fantasma da Luthor, giunto nel laboratorio segreto di Superboy per cercare di carpirne i segreti tecnologici. Alla fine Superman uccise, utilizzando la kryptonite verde, i tre criminali, che avevano ucciso tutti gli abitanti di Terra-prima, a parte Supergirl, che venne così portata sulla nostra Terra.

In seguito le origini sono state rinarrate da Mark Waid e Leinil Frencis Yu nella maxi-serie Superman: Rinascita, dove viene recuperato il Luthor folle del periodo pre-Crisis combinandolo con l'abile magnate del periodo Byrne: oggi come allora Luthor crea una minaccia inesistente, ma questa volta non per mettere alla prova il suo avversario bensì per screditarlo di fronte agli occhi della gente. Ottiene, però, l'effetto opposto.

Successivamente Superman partecipa a diversi crossover, combattendo contro incredibili minacce ed unendosi saltuariamente alla Justice League (come nel caso di Millennium): egli, infatti, ha deciso di non unirsi al gruppo, se non in casi estremamente straordinari, nonostante i suoi poteri siano stati volutamente ridimensionati rispetto alla versione praticamente onnipotente data dagli autori classici delle serie di Superman.

Fatti narrativamente salienti sono la sua morte, ideata interamente da Dan Jurgens, il suo matrimonio con Lois Lane e la sua successiva perdita di poteri con conseguente ritorno degli stessi, ma in forma di manipolazione dell'energia similmente a Raggio. Quindi, riprendendo una vecchia storia pre-Crisis, gli autori lo hanno sdoppiato in due entità, una rossa ed una blu, che spesso si sono pestate i piedi, per poi ritornare il Superman che conosciamo dopo l'arrivo dei Giganti del millennio.

Superman ha partecipato alla guerra contro Imperiex (raccontata in Our Worlds at War), un essere proveniente dalle origini dell'universo, una forza così devastante che nemmeno Doomsday è riuscito a fermare.

Il nome kryptoniano [modifica]

Entrambi ebrei, Shuster e Siegel diedero a Superman il nome Kal-El, che in lingua ebraica significa Voce del cielo. Essi precisarono questa traduzione linguistica in un'intervista successiva alla pubblicazione di una serie di storie a fumetti in cui vennero approfondite le origini di Superman e della civiltà che viveva sul pianeta Krypton.[4]

Altri media [modifica]

Cinema [modifica]
 Per approfondire, vedi le voci Superman (film), Superman II, Superman III, Superman IV e Superman Returns.

A Superman sono stati dedicati quattro film a cavallo tra gli anni settanta e anni ottanta, tutti interpretati dall'attore statunitense Christopher Reeve nel ruolo di Clark Kent.

Il primo film su Superman è del 1978: vedeva impegnati, tra gli altri attori, Gene Hackman nel ruolo di Lex Luthor e il grande Marlon Brando, in un famoso, breve e - stando alle voci circolanti all'epoca - molto ben remunerato cameo nella parte del padre biologico di Superman.

Nel 2006 è stato distribuito il kolossal Superman Returns, che riprende la trama dei primi due, diretto da Bryan Singer e interpretato da Brandon Routh.

I cinque film [modifica]

    * Superman (Superman - The Movie), regia di Richard Donner (1978), con Christopher Reeve
    * Superman II (Superman II), regia di Richard Lester (1980), con Christopher Reeve
    * Superman III (Superman III), regia di Richard Lester (1983), con Christopher Reeve
    * Superman IV (Superman IV: The Quest for Peace), regia di Sidney J. Furie (1987), con Christopher Reeve
    * Superman Returns (Superman Returns), regia di Bryan Singer (2006), con Brandon Routh

Pubblicità [modifica]

Mentre in patria il personaggio Superman è stato inserito in un manifesto della campagna Got Milk?, in Italia lo si è visto nei manifesti e negli spot di una campagna di Pubblicità Progresso a favore del volontariato realizzata nel 1991.

Televisione [modifica]

Telefilm [modifica]
 Per approfondire, vedi le voci Adventures of Superman (serie televisiva), Lois & Clark - Le nuove avventure di Superman e Smallville (serie televisiva).

Al personaggio sono state dedicate diverse serie di telefilm e d'animazione.

    * Adventures of Superman è una serie televisiva trasmessa dal 1952 al 1958 negli Stati Uniti d'America, con George Reeves interprete di Clark Kent/Superman con Phyllis Coates nel ruolo di Lois Lane.

    * Lois & Clark - Le nuove avventure di Superman (Lois & Clark: The New Adventures of Superman): è una serie televisiva composta di 4 stagioni di 22 episodi ciascuna trasmessa in USA dal 1993 al 1997, con Dean Cain nei panni dell'eroe e Teri Hatcher in quelli della giornalista d'assalto Lois Lane. La serie è stata trasmessa anche in Italia, prima da LA7 poi da Rai Tre, che ha ripreso la trasmissione dalla prima puntata e completato la messa in onda, e successivamente dal canale digitale terrestre Boing e da Italia 1.

    * Smallville: è iniziata nel 2001 l'ultima serie dedicata a Superman. In questa serie, non vengono narrate le storie di Superman, ma del giovane Clark Kent, alle prese con i suoi nascenti poteri, con la scoperta del suo retaggio kryptoniano, con i problemi creati dal suo rapporto con Lana Lang. La serie si avvale della collaborazione, fra gli altri, dello sceneggiatore di fumetti Jeph Loeb, che ha anche scritto per un certo periodo le avventure dell'Uomo d'acciaio. Protagonista di un'apparizione breve ma piena di significato è l'attore Christopher Reeve, celebre Superman del cinema, tetraplegico dal 1995 per una brutta caduta da cavallo e scomparso poco dopo la partecipazione a due episodi della serie. Negli USA la serie è arrivata a otto stagioni. La serie viene trasmessa in Italia sul canale Mediaset Italia 1.

Cartoni animati [modifica]
Superman nel suo primo cartone animato
 Per approfondire, vedi le voci Superman (serie animata) e Le avventure di Superman.

    * Superman (1941), serie TV di 17 episodi prodotta da Fleischer Studios e da Famous Studios.
    * The New Adventures of Superman (1966), serie TV di 36 brevi episodi di 6 minuti, prodotta dalla Filmation.
    * The Superman/Aquaman Hour of Adventure (1967), 16 nuovi corti da 6 minuti, realizzati dalla Filmation.
    * The Batman/Superman Hour (1968), ancora della Filmation, 17 nuovi brevi episodi, di 6 minuti e mezzo, trasmessi insieme a quelli, di analoga durata, di Batman.
    * I Superamici (Super Friends) (prima serie 1973 - ultima serie 1985), realizzata da Hanna & Barbera, è composta da molte stagioni successive con titoli differenti.
    * Le avventure di Superman (Superman: The Animated Series) (1996), serie TV di Leslie Lamers; negli USA questi episodi, dopo la loro prima vennero trasmessi anche insieme a quelli della serie del 1997 di Batman - cavaliere della notte, formando il contenitore: The New Batman/Superman Adventures, nel 1997. Legati a questa serie animata sono anche i due lungometraggi: Superman - L'ultimo figlio di Kripton (Superman: The Last Son of Krypton) nel 1996, e Batman e Superman - I due supereroi (The Batman/Superman Movie, noto anche come World's Finest) nel 1998.
    * Justice League (2001) Superman fa parte della Lega della giustizia in questa serie tv prodotta da Warner Bros composta da 52 episodi in due stagioni più tre speciali (di cui due collegati);
    * Justice League Unlimited (2004) seguito della precedente, modifica soltanto il titolo; si compone di 39 episodi in tre stagioni.

Videogiochi [modifica]

Grazie alla sua popolarità, Superman è diventato protagonista di numerosi videogiochi già a partire dalla fine degli anni '80, con alcuni beat 'em up e arcade game per Atari, NES e SNES. Sempre per Super Nintendo, è stato pubblicato da Blizzard The Death and Return of Superman.

Nelle console di nuova generazione, a Superman sono stati dedicati due titoli aventi come avversario Apokolips: Superman: Shadow of Apokolips (PlayStation 2 e GameCube, 2002) e Superman: Countdown to Apokolips (Game Boy Advance, 2003). Nel 2002 è stato prodotto Superman: The Man of Steel (Xbox), e nel 2006 Superman Returns (per PS2, Xbox e Xbox 360), tie-in dell'omonimo film.

Nel 1999 è stato dedicato un titolo anche alla sua versione animata, Superman 64, su Nintendo 64.

È inoltre presente poi in molte altre produzioni videoludiche assieme ad altri personaggi dell'universo DC Comics, principalmente come membro della Justice League in Justice League Task Force (Mega Drive e SNES, 1995), Justice League: Injustice for All (GBA, 2002), Justice League: Chronicles (GBA, 2003), Justice League Heroes (PS2, Xbox e PlayStation Portable, 2006), e opposto ai personaggi di Mortal Kombat in Mortal Kombat vs DC Universe (Xbox 360 e PlayStation 3, 2008).

Note [modifica]

   1. ^ Superman: sentenza storica assegna il diritto d'autore agli eredi di Siegel. Fumetti di Carta Blog, 29-03-2008. URL consultato il 05-04-2008.
   2. ^ La notizia su ComicUS
   3. ^ Per alcuni numeri la periodicità è stata trasformata in quattordicinale.
   4. ^ La Stampa: Superman è ebreo?

Voci correlate [modifica]

    * Clark Kent
    * Krypton
    * Kryptonite

Altri personaggi DC [modifica]

    * Batman
    * Wonder Woman
    * Flash
    * Aquaman
    * Martian Manhunter
    * Atomo
    * Blue Beetle
    * Freccia Verde
    * Black Canary
    * Capitan Marvel
    * Plastic Man
    * Lobo
    * Mr. Miracle
    * Lanterna Verde
    * JLA
    * Personaggi DC Comics
    * Gruppi e organizzazioni DC Comics

Altro [modifica]

    * Fumetto
    * Generi di letteratura
    * DC Comics


Superman
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Voor overige betekenissen van Superman zie Superman (doorverwijspagina)
Superman
Achtergrond
Uitgever(s)  DC Comics
Eerste verschijning  Action Comics #1 (1938)
Bedenker(s)  Jerry Siegel, Joe Shuster
Persoonlijke informatie
Alter ego(s)  Clark Joseph Kent
Bekende aliassen  Kal-El (Krypton naam), Gangbuster, Nova, The Man of Steel, The Last Son of Krypton.
Soort  Kryptoniaan
Thuiswereld  Krypton (geboorteplaneet)
Familie  Jor-El (vader), Jonathan & Martha Kent (adoptiefouders)
Lid (geweest) van  Justice League, Team Superman
Grootste vijanden  Lex Luthor
Superkrachten  Bovenmenselijke kracht, snelheid, reflexen en uithoudingsvermogen. Onkwetsbaar voor vrijwel alles. Bovenmenselijk gehoor. IJsadem. Kan vliegen. Laser- en Röntgenogen.

Superman, ook wel "de Man van Staal" genoemd, is een fictief personage en imaginaire superheld, die zijn eerste verschijning maakte in de Amerikaanse Action Comics #1 in 1938. Sindsdien is Superman een van de meest populaire en bekendste comic-figuren aller tijden geworden.
Inhoud
[verbergen]

    * 1 Achtergrond
    * 2 Biografie
    * 3 Krachten en vaardigheden
    * 4 In andere media
          o 4.1 Films
          o 4.2 Televisie
    * 5 Externe links
    * 6 Bronnen, noten en/of referenties

[bewerk] Achtergrond

Superman werd gecreëerd door Joe Shuster en Jerry Siegel. Aanvankelijk bedacht het duo een telepathisch begaafde schurk met de naam superman. Hij verscheen kort in "The Reign of the Superman" van Fiction #3, een sciencefictiontijdschrift. Dit personage sloeg niet aan, en het duo bedacht een tweede personage met de naam superman. Ditmaal kozen ze voor een held met fysieke in plaats van mentale krachten. Deze versie van Superman maakte zijn debuut in Action Comics #1 in 1938.

Superman sloeg in deze vorm wel aan bij een groot publiek, en kreeg al snel een eigen stripserie. Aanvankelijk was hij nog een vrij radicale held die zijn vijanden hardhandig versloeg, maar later kreeg hij zijn morele code en ging hij minder gewelddadig gedrag vertonen.

Vervolgens verscheen Superman in verschillende radio- en televisieprogramma's, zowel als films als in de vorm van spellen. Uiteindelijk verbreedde de superheld zijn horizon en begon ook op internationaal gebied te verschijnen, ook in Nederland.

Het harde leven van Superman wordt in 1991 bezongen door de Crash Test Dummies in 'Superman's Song'. De videoclip toont Superman zijn begrafenis; voor de groep werd het hun eerste hit (zie ook: [1]).

Supermans achtergrondverhaal is steeds verder uitgediept in de loop der jaren. Zo verschenen er ook avonturen van een jonge Superman (superboy), en werden andere personages van Krypton zoals supergirl en krypto geïntroduceerd.

Superman is inmiddels een van de meest herkenbare superhelden ter wereld. Er zijn vele merchandisingproducten van hem in omloop.

[bewerk] Biografie

Supermans oorsprong en achtergrond zijn in de loop der jaren vaak aangepast, evenals zijn bekende superkrachten. Ook de tijd waarin zijn verhalen zich afspelen varieert van de jaren 30 van de 20e eeuw (oudste strips) tot vandaag de dag (huidige continuïteit).

Superman werd geboren als Kal-El op de planeet Krypton. Deze planeet stond op het punt te ontploffen, waardoor Supermans ouders besloten hem te evacueren met een ruimteschip. Dit schip werd naar de Aarde gestuurd aangezien deze planeet eveneens een perfect leefklimaat had voor Kryptonianen. Op aarde landde het schip net buiten het kleine dorpje Smallville, waar de Jonge Kal-El werd gevonden en geadopteerd door Jonathan en Martha Kent. Zij noemden hem Clark Kent.

Terwijl hij opgroeide, ontdekte hij dat hij krachten bezat ver boven die van de gewone man. Als volwassen man besloot Clark met deze krachten de misdaad te bevechten. Hij verhuisde naar de stad Metropolis, waar hij een baan als journalist nam bij de krant Daily Planet-krant. Daar werkt hij samen met journalist Lois Lane, met wie hij een romantische relatie onderhoudt. In de huidige continuïteit van de strips zijn de twee getrouwd, al hebben beiden andere relaties gehad door de jaren heen.

Binnen het DC Universum staat Superman bekend als een rolmodel voor veel helden. Hij heeft een sterke morele code waar hij nooit vanaf wijkt. Superman is lid geweest van veel superheldenteams, met name de Justice League. Binnen deze teams had hij vrijwel altijd de rol van teamleider.

[bewerk] Krachten en vaardigheden

Supermans krachten zijn in de loop van de jaren steeds verder ontwikkeld.

In de oudste strips waren Supermans krachten nog beperkt. Hij was sterker dan een gemiddeld mens (hij kon een auto optillen), kon hard rennen en zeer ver en hoog springen. Als verklaring hiervoor werd gegeven dat Supermans thuisplaneet, Krypton, een veel grotere zwaartekracht heeft dan de aarde. Daar Supermans lichaam is aangepast aan deze grote zwaartekracht, is hij op Aarde tot meer in staat (hetzelfde effect als astronauten die op de maan hoger en verder kunnen springen dan op aarde).

In de huidige continuïteit van de strip beschikt Superman over een veel groter arsenaal aan krachten. Hij kan nu bijvoorbeeld vliegen, door de meeste materialen heenkijken (alleen met lood heeft hij moeite), laserstralen afvuren uit zijn ogen en dingen bevriezen met zijn adem. Supermans spierkracht is eveneens vergroot. Zo kan hij tegenwoordig bergen verpulveren, een nucleaire explosie weerstaan en overleven in de ruimte zonder zuurstof of ruimtepak. Ook de bron van Supermans krachten is in de loop der jaren veranderd naarmate hij meer krachten kreeg. Een veel gebruikte verklaring is dat Superman zijn krachten dankt aan de Aardse zon. De zon van Krypton was een rode zon, maar die van de Aarde een gele. Onder invloed van een gele zon krijgen Kryptonianen superkrachten.

Het tijdstip waarop Superman zijn krachten kreeg varieert per strip. Sommige verhalen gaan er vanuit dat Superman al sinds zijn kindertijd zijn krachten had. In deze strips was Superman in zijn jeugd ook al een held genaamd Superboy. Andere strips gaan er echter van uit dat Supermans krachten zich pas (ver) in zijn tienertijd ontwikkelden.

Superman heeft een grote zwakte: kryptoniet, een stof die afkomstig zou zijn van zijn geboorteplaneet Krypton. Dit kryptoniet komt in verschillende vormen voor, en elke vorm heeft een ander effect op Superman. De bekendste versie is groen kryptoniet, dat Superman zijn krachten ontneemt en hem zelfs fataal kan worden bij te lange blootstelling.

[bewerk] In andere media

[bewerk] Films

Live-action films
Titel  Jaar  Superman acteur
Superman (filmserie)  1948  Kirk Alyn
Atom Man vs. Superman  1950
Superman and the Mole Men  1951  George Reeves
Superman  1978  Christopher Reeve
Superman II  1980
Superman III  1983
Superman IV: The Quest for Peace  1987
Superman Returns  2006  Brandon Routh
Superman: Man of Steel  2009

Animatiefilms:

    * Superman: Brainiac Attacks (2006)
    * Superman: Doomsday (2007)
    * Justice League: The New Frontier (2008)

[bewerk] Televisie

Series over superman:

    * Superman (een reeks korte tekenfilmpjes uit de jaren 40).
    * Adventures of Superman (1952 – 1958)
    * The New Adventures of Superman (animatieserie 1966 – 1970)
    * Superboy (1988 – 1992)
    * Superman (animatieserie 1988 – 1989)
    * Lois & Clark: The New Adventures of Superman (1993 t/m 1997)
    * Superman: The Animated Series (animatieserie 1996 – 2000)
    * Smallville (2001 t/m heden)

Series met Superman in een (grote) bijrol:

    * Super Friends (animatieserie 1973 – 1986)
    * Justice League (animatieserie (2001 – 2004)
    * Justice League Unlimited (animatieserie 2004 – 2006)
    * Legion of Super Heroes (animatieserie 2006 – heden)


Supermann
Portal: Tegneserier
Gå til: navigasjon, søk

    «Supermann» har flere betydninger.

Den amerikanske tegneseriefiguren Supermann framstilt i en tegnefilm fra Fleischer Studios i 1941. Superhelten ble første gang presentert i en tegneserie i 1938 og er siden framstilt i utallige tegneserier og en flere filmer.

Supermann, eller Superman på amerikansk, er en fiktiv superhelt i tegneserier utgitt av det amerikanske tegneserieforlaget DC Comics. Rolleskikkelsen ble opprinnelig skapt av Jerry Siegel og Joe Shuster og presentert i tegneserieheftet Action Comics nummer 1 i 1938. Supermann er blant de eldste og mest kjente superheltfigurene i moderne vestlig populærkultur. Det har blitt lagd en mengde tegneseriehistorier samt radioprogrammer, tv-serier og filmer med Supermann i hovedrollen.

I historiene om Supermann lever han et dobbeltliv i den oppdiktede byen Smallville i USA. Der opptrer han skiftevis forkledt som klønete journalist under dekknavnet Clark Kent og som edel helt i kamp mot kriminalitet, onde superhelter og andre fiender av den amerikanske livsstilen. Supermann har superkrefter og -egenskaper. Han kan blant annet fly og har røntgensyn. Med sine utrolige evner og styrke, sin utenomjordiske bakgrunn og proamerikanske holdning er han kulturhistorisk i slekt med greske heroer, jødiske og kristne frelserskikkelser og forestillinger om «overmennesket» såvel som med science fiction-helte og sirkusakrobater: Historiene har også hentet inspirasjon fra moderne vitenskap og teknologi.

I de første Supermann-tegneseriene oversatt til norsk, fra 1952 til 1954, ble figuren kalt kalt Stålmannen.
Innhold
[skjul]

    * 1 Fakta om tegneserie- og filmfiguren
          o 1.1 Bakgrunn
          o 1.2 Superkrefter
          o 1.3 Svakheter
          o 1.4 Fiender
          o 1.5 Venner
          o 1.6 Allierte
    * 2 Bakgrunnshistorie
    * 3 Supermann i Norge
    * 4 Supermann i filmer
          o 4.1 Kirk Alyn
          o 4.2 George Reeves
          o 4.3 Christopher Reeve
          o 4.4 Dean Cain
          o 4.5 Brandon Routh
          o 4.6 Tom Welling
    * 5 TV-serier

[rediger] Fakta om tegneserie- og filmfiguren

[rediger] Bakgrunn

Supermann er født på planeten Krypton og er derfor mye sterkere enn et vanlig menneske på grunn av jordas gule sol. Hans kryptonske navn er Kal-El, sønn av Jor-El og Lara.

Jor-El var en forsker på Krypton. Han fant ut at planeten holdt på å eksplodere, men ingen trodde på ham. Rett før planeten eksploderte sendte han og Lara sønnen i en kapsel og sendte ham til jorden hvor han ble funnet og tatt vare på av Jonathan og Martha Kent på et jorde i Smallville. De ga ham navnet Clark, etter Marthas pikenavn.

Senere flyttet han til Metropolis hvor han studerte journalistikk og senere tok jobb i Daily Planet. Der møtte han Lois Lane, som han forelsket seg i, og senere giftet seg med.

Kommer han i nærheten av kryptonitt-fragmenter mister han alle overnaturlige krefter og blir veldig svak. Ettersom Supermann også ønsker å ha et privatliv, tar han hyre som reporter under dekknavnet Clark Kent.

[rediger] Superkrefter

Supermann har superkrefter, en mengde av dem. Som en følge av at han er født på en planet med høy tyngdekraft som kretser rundt en rød sol, blir han et supermenneske når han er på en planet med lavere tyngdekraft som kretser rundt en gul sol (for eksempel jorden). Opp gjennom historien har de forskjellige tegneserie- og filmmanusforfatterne lagt til og trukket fra hvilke krefter det er Supermann har. Her er en oppramsing av de viktigste superkreftene som har blitt benyttet i tegneseriene.

    * Teleskopsyn - Supermann kan se en maur klatre opp et gresstrå på en planet i en fjerntliggende galakse
    * Mikroskopsynsyn - Supermann kan se atomer og molekyler
    * Røntgensyn - Supermann kan se tvers gjennom bygninger, klær, hud osv. men kan ikke se gjennom bly
    * Varmesyn - Supermann kan skyte ut varmestråler med øynene og få ting til å ta fyr eller smelte. En skurks gevær kan f.eks smelte. Eller en kanon.
    * Superpust - Supermann kan puste ut kald luft - såpass at han kan fryse en hel innsjø til is
    * Superfart - Supermann er superrask, både når han løper, flyr eller svømmer. Han tilbakelegger store distanser gjennom verdensrommet på sekunder. Da han ble oppfunnet kunne han bare løpe fra toget.
    * Flyveevnen - Supermann kan fly for egen maskin, bare ved å ville det. Da figuren ble skapt kunne han bare hoppe over en skyskraper.
    * Superhørsel - Supermann kan høre alt. Det skal være totalt umulig å snike seg innpå Supermann.
    * Usårbarhet - Supermanns hud er ugjennomtrengelig. Håret hans kan ikke klippes, da knekker saksa.
    * Tidsreising - Ved å fly i en bestemt fart samtidig som han vibrerer med kroppen kan Supermann reise gjennom historien, både til fortiden og til fremtiden.
    * Superhjerne - Supermanns hjerne kan absorbere mye viten på kort tid ved å lese bøker på millisekunder. Han har fotografisk hukommelse og husker derfor alt. Han kan snakke alle levende og døde jordiske språk og en del utenomjordiske. Støter han på et språk han ikke har vært borti, tar det ham kort tid å lære seg det.
    * Manglende behov - Supermann trenger ikke å spise, drikke eller puste - men han kan hvis han vil. Han kan fordøye hva som helst, f.eks. kan han spise en jernklump uten problemer.

[rediger] Svakheter

En såpass allmektig figur som Supermann måtte etter hvert få noen svakheter, ellers ville han være så totalt overlegen at det ikke ville være mulig å skrive nye historier om ham. Her er noen av de hyppigst brukte svakhetene.

    * Kryptonitt. Kryptonitt er fragmenter fra hans fødeplanet Krypton som ble radioaktive under den kjernefysiske eksplosjonen som sprengte planeten i filler. Noen kryptonittbiter har falt ned på jorden. De mest kjente variantene av kryptonitt er grønn kryptonitt, rød kryptonitt, gullkryptonitt, blå kryptonitt, juvel-kryptonitt og hvit kryptonitt.

- Grønn kryptonitt, som er den opprinnelige, er dødelig for Supermann og alle andre kryptonesere som har superkrefter. Mister de imidlertid superkreftene, selv om det bare er midlertidig, har den grønne kryptonitten tilsynelatende ingen virkning på en kryptoneser. Lenge trodde man at strålningen fra grønn kryptonitt ikke hadde noen virkning på jordboere, men det later til at langvarig påvirkning likevel forårsaker farlig og muligens dødelig stråleforgiftning.

- Rød kryptonitt er opprinnelig grønn kryptonitt som har passert gjennom en rød kosmisk sky og blitt forandret slik at hver klump har forskjellige - og av og til ganske bisarre - effekter på Supermann, men er ikke dødelig - og effekten forsvinner over en periode på 1-2 døgn. I tillegg kan én bestemt klump med rød kryptonitt bare påvirke Supermann én gang, så er han immun mot denne spesifikke klumpen.

- Gullkryptonitt fjerner en kryptonesers superkrefter permanent. Interessant å merke seg: en sammensmeltning av rød og gullkryptonitt fører tilsynelatende til totalt hukommelsestap hos en kryptoneser, uten at superkreftene påvirkes i noen større grad. Observasjonsmaterialet har vært noe mangelfullt til å kunne trekke en definitiv konklusjon, men det er iallfall dette som har hendt hver gang Supermann har vært utsatt for denne blandingen.

- Blå kryptonitt ble dannet da grønn kryptonitt ble bestrålt med professor Potters "duplikatorstråle". Duplikatorstrålen er ellers mest beryktet for å ha skapt Supermanns mildt talt uperfekte kopi Bizarro, og blå kryptonitt har den samme virkningen på Bizarro-vesener som grønn kryptonitt har på Supermann.

- Juvel-kryptonitt er kryptonitt fra et spesifikt naturlig fenomen på Krypton, nærmere bestemt fjellkjeden Juvel-fjellene. Nærhet til denne varianten forsterker en kryptonesers mentale energi, slik at han f. eks. kan projisere illusjoner, kontrollere sinn, og sprenge gjenstander med tankens makt.

- Hvit kryptonitt dreper alt planteliv.

I tillegg finnes det flere mindre kjente varianter. Disse inkluderer:

- Svart kryptonitt, som sannsynligvis er skapt av den planetariske despoten Darkseid. Den virker slik at den kan splitte en kryptoneser i to, én god og én ond.

- Anti-kryptonitt, som ikke har noen virkning på kryptonesere med superkrefter, men som er dødelig for kryptonesere som ikke har krefter. Anti-kryptonitt er også skadelig, i den utstrekning det er mulig, for beboere av fantomsonen, hvor Kryptons verste forbrytere ble "innesperret". Det fortelles også at Ultramann, Supermanns onde motstykke på Jord-3, fikk kreftene sine fra et stykke anti-kryptonitt. (Fun Fact: Anti-kryptonitt er sannsynligvis skapt i en fei for å dekke over en skriveblemme på sekstitallet. Supergirls fødeby Argo City med alle dens innbyggere overlevde først eksplosjonen fordi byen befant seg under en glasskuppel som så ble slengt hel ut i rommet. Mange år etterpå dør imidlertid alle (unntatt Supergirl, som blir sendt i et lite romskip mot Jorda) av grønn kryptonittstrålning - selv om det er et etablert faktum at kryptonesere uten superkrefter er immune mot grønn kryptonitt. Plutselig trengte man en kjapp utvei.)

- X-kryptonitt, som ikke har noen virkning på kryptonesere, men som gir jordboere midlertidige superkrefter.

- Sen-kryptonitt, som er dødelig for jordmennesker men som tilsynelatende ikke har noen virkning på kryptonesere.

- Rosa kryptonitt, som gir en kryptoneser trekk som oftest identifiseres med generelle parodier på homofile menn (Denne er riktignok bare nevnt i en historie fra en "alternativ" tidslinje).

    * Magi. Supermann kan påvirkes av magi, faktisk i høyere grad enn et jordmenneske. Dette kommer ifølge tekstene av at magi gjennom tidene har vært så utbredt på jorden at "alle" jordmennesker har en eller annen magiker (homo magus) i sitt slektstre, noe som gjør at vi alle har større eller mindre mengder magisk energi i oss og dermed til en viss grad har evnen til å motstå magi. På Krypton, imidlertid, fantes det ikke "naturlig" magi, og kryptonesere har derfor ikke bygget opp denne evnen. Magi er i Supermanns verden ofte forekommende i forbindelse med besøk av plageånden Mr. Mxyzptlk fra den femte dimensjon, men også benyttet i mange andre sammenhenger.

    * Høy moral. Dette kan strengt tatt ikke betegnes som ensvakhet, men Supermann har pålagt seg selv en personlig kodeks som forbyr ham å drepe et levende vesen, uansett hvor ondt, mektig eller blodtørstig. Dette fører til at selv hans verste og ondeste fiender kan komme tilbake igjen og igjen for å utføre nye skurkestreker. Den ene gangen Supermann brøt denne kodeksen - da han brukte kryptonitt til å henrette de kryptonesiske forbryterne Zod, Quex-Ul og Ursa i en annen dimensjon, etter at de hadde myrdet hvert eneske menneske på Jorda i denne dimensjonen og skrøt av at de skulle gjøre det samme i Supermanns dimensjon - rablet det for Supermann, og han ble splittet i to personligheter som sameksisterte i Supermanns kropp uten å vite det; den gode, snille speidergutten Supermann og den hardtslående, reaksjonære vigilanten Gangbuster som hadde et tilfeldig forhold til forbryteres rettigheter.

[rediger] Fiender

Supermann har mange fiender, bl.a. alle forbrytere på jorden. Men noen av disse forbryterne kommer igjen og igjen - og er derfor hans erkefiender. Her er de viktigste.

    * Lex Luthor. I de første femti årene av Supermanns historie var Lex en gal, skalla og genial vitenskapsmann. Han er like oppfinnsom som Petter Smart, om man kan tenke seg en maskin så kan han lage den. Verdensherredømme er hans mål og han hater Supermann og forsøker å drepe ham. Da John Byrne gjenskapte Supermann i forbindelse med femtiårsdagen, så forandret han på en rekke ting, deriblant Lex Luthor. Ettertidens Lex er en rik forretningsmann som har verdensherredømme som mål. Alle trodde lenge han var en respektabel og lovlydig borger, det var bare Supermann, Batman og noen få til som kjente hans forbryterske sinn. Så langt gikk det at han brukte sine ikke ubetydelige midler - både økonomiske og andre - til å sikre seg først en nominasjon og deretter valgseier i det amerikanske presidentvalget. Luthor holdt fast ved presidentskapet en stund - og i denne perioden fant han endatil ut at Clark Kent og Supermann var en og samme person - men med Batman og Captain Atoms hjelp klarte Supermann å avsløre for hele verden at Lex Luthor, tross det finpolerte imaget, ikke var annet enn en morderisk og svikefull banditt av kosmisk format (Superman/Batman nr. 6, mars 2004). I dag er Luthor leder for et globalt kriminelt nettverk som har samlet nær sagt alle verdens superskurker under et felles banner.
    * Brainiac. Opprinnelig var Brainiac en superavansert datamaskinhjerne i en menneskelignende androide, bygget av de kalde og ufølsomme computerherrene på planeten Colu for å reise rundt i galaksen og samle informasjon og kunnskap. Brainiac besøkte i denne inkarnasjonen Krypton før planeten eksploderte. Han analyserte planetens kjerne og fant ut at Jor-Els teorier om Kryptons forestående ødeleggelse var korrekt, og krympet derfor den kryptonesiske byen Kandor og puttet den på flaske for å bevare den kunnskapen som bybeboerne satt inne med. Brainiac kom i klammeri med Supermann da han også forsøkte å ta med seg noen jordiske byer på denne måten, og siden denne gangen har de to vært fiender. Supermann reddet flaskebyen Kandor fra Brainiacs skip, og plasserte den i Ensomhetsfestningen i påvente av å finne en måte å oppheve virkningene av Brainiacs krympestråle. Dette var såkalt "pre-crisis", altså før maxi-serien "Crisis on Infinite Earths" fra 1986, hvor man benyttet anledningen til å endre på en god del av DC-universets historie. Brainiac gjennomgikk nå en omfattende forandring. Vril Dox var en radikal forsker på Colu, som ble dømt til døden etter et feilslått kuppforsøk. Hans essens søkte ut i galaksen, og ble tiltrukket av variete-artisten Milton Fine, som opptrådte under tilnavnet Brainiac. Dox overtok Fines bevissthet, og fant ut at han virkelig hadde spesielle mentale evner. Etter en serie mord kom han på Supermanns radar, og de to ble naturlig nok fiender. Etter flere "oppgraderinger" har Brainiac blitt en stadig farligere fiende, og ved mer enn en anledning har det vært behov for alle medlemmene i Lovens Voktere, pluss noen allierte, for å stanse Brainiacs planer.
    * Mr. Mxyzptlk. Navnet uttales "Mix-yezz-pitel-ick". Pre-Crisis var han en dverg som kommer fra en annen dimensjon enn vår - den femte dimensjon. Mxyzptlk var - og er - ikke egentlig ond, heller en spilloppmaker som elsker å besøke vår dimensjon for å skape kaos for Supermann bare på gøy. Han besitter magi og derfor kan ikke Supermann gjøre ham noe. Den eneste måten man kunne bli kvitt Mr. Mxyzptlk på for en stund var å lure ham til å si sitt eget navn baklengs (Kltpzyxm - uttales "Kell-tipz-yex-im"). Da forsvant han automatisk tilbake til den femte dimensjon igjen for en periode på 90 dager, og alt han hadde forårsaket ble opphevet da han forsvant. Post-Crisis er Mxyzptlk i store trekk den samme, bortsett fra at pekene han spiller Supermann nok er en tanke mer ondskapsfulle og hensynsløse. Og der man før fikk ham til å forsvinne ved å lure ham til å si navnet sitt baklengs, setter han nå selv opp betingelsene Supermann må oppfylle for å få ham til å reise frivillig tilbake til den fente dimensjon. Med alle sine feil har Mxyzptlk likevel en form for "ære", og han går ikke tilbake på de betingelsene han setter opp.
    * General Zod. før Kal-El ble sendt til jorden var faren hans, Jor El, Aktorat og Dommer mot General Zod, med lederne av Krypton som jury ble General Zod og hans to medsammensvorne forvist til Fantom Sonen for sine kriminelle handlinger mot Krypton, som senere leder til ødeleggelsen av planet Krypton. Under Supermanns tilstedeværelse på Planet Jorden blir Zod sluppet fri fra Fantom Sonen, han er tørst etter hevn mot Jor-El, han velger Kal-El som sitt offer og bestemmer seg for at jorden skal lide samme skjebne som Krypton
    * Bizarro. Bizarro er Supermanns onde dobbelgjenger. hvis Supermann sier f.eks. ("Me am going to kill you") det ville bety i Bizarro Språk: I will save you.

[rediger] Venner

Dette typegalleriet har også variert opp igjennom historien, men her er gjengangerne.

    * Lois Lane. Kvinnen i Supermanns liv. Lois er journalist og skriver artikler i avisa Daily Planet. I mange år var hun kvinnen som elsket Supermann og som mistenkte sin kollega Clark Kent for å være Supermann i forkledning. Hun gjorde alt hun kunne for å avsløre Clark, men lyktes aldri. Til slutt fridde Supermann til henne og fortalte sin hemmelighet. Supermann og Lois giftet seg på 90-tallet.
    * Jimmy Olsen. Supermanns beste venn. Den rødhårede unggutten Jimmy er fotograf i Daily Planet, med en egen evne til å havne i trøbbel. Derfor har Supermann gitt Jimmy et arbåndsur med en bestemt funksjon. Om Jimmy trykker på en av knappene, sender den ut en superfrekvent lyd som kun Supermann kan høre. Supermann kan følge denne lyden tilbake til utgangspunktet og dermed komme Jimmy til unnsetning.
    * Perry White. Perry er sjefredaktør for Daily Planet, og er dermed sjefen til Lois, Jimmy og Supermanns alter ego, Clark Kent.
    * Bruce Wayne. Mangemillionær fra Gotham City, og Batmans (Lynvingens) alter ego. Clark og Bruce kjenner hverandres hemmeligheter og stiller alltid opp for hverandre.

[rediger] Allierte

Supermann kjenner de fleste andre heltene i DC-universet, og har også støtt på heltene fra Marvels superunivers. Supermann er medlem i Lovens Voktere (Justice League of America), sammen med en rekke av heltene fra andre DC superblader. Her er en liste over heltene fra den nåværende Justice League, håndplukket av Supermann, Batman og Mirakelkvinnen da disse tre ville starte opp Lovens Voktere igjen etter den siste krisen i DC-universet (noen av disse har ikke noe norsk navn):

    * Supermann
    * Batman
    * Wonder Woman (Mirakelkvinnen)
    * Green Lantern (Grønne Lykt)
    * The Flash (Lynet)
    * Red Arrow (Tidligere Speedy, tenåringsassistenten til Green Arrow)
    * Hawkgirl (Haukepiken)
    * Red Tornado (Røde Tornado)
    * Black Canary (Svarte Kanari)
    * Vixen
    * Black Lightning
    * Geo-Force

Når Supermann opptrer i historier sammen med disse figurene, så må manusforfatterne svekke Supermanns krefter, ellers ville han ha ordnet opp i problemene på egen hånd, og dermed hadde ikke de andre heltene hatt noe å gjøre. Det samme går for TV- og filmversjoner av Supermann. Til tross for at teknologien innen cgi nå er i stand til å gjengi alle hans superkrefter, så klarer ikke manusforfatterne å lage en god historie om Supermann der han besitter de mektige kreftene som han egentlig har. Dessuten er det ingen av de manusforfatterne som hittil har lagd TV- eller filmmanus som er såpass kjent med figuren, mytologien, utviklingen og de egenskapene Supermann innehar at de klarer å lage en Supermannfilm som viser Supermann slik fans ser ham. Derfor er den Supermann man ser på TV, kino og DVD (selv tegnefilmer) en mye, mye svakere Supermann enn den mange kjenner fra tegneseriene.

[rediger] Bakgrunnshistorie

Verdens dyreste tegneserieblad er den første utgaven av Action Comics fra 1938. Et pent eksemplar skulle koste rundt 150 000 amerikanske dollar om du finner et til salgs. Superman ble oppfunnet av sekstenåringene Jerry Siegel og Joe Shuster. Etter at de fikk ideen om et menneske som hadde overnaturlige krefter, manifesterte dette seg først i en novelle der dette supermennesket hadde evnene til å høre og påvirke andres tanker. Tegningene som illustrerer novellen har en viss likhet med Supermans senere erkefiende, Lex Luthor.

Senere fant de ut at dette supermennesket hadde større potensial, og de lagde et tegneseriehefte med helten Superman. De forsøkte å selge dette heftet til diverse tegneserieforlag men fikk tommelen ned fra alle. Jerry Siegel som var skribenten i teamet (Shuster tegnet) brant opp det eneste eksemplaret av denne tegneserien i ren frustrasjon, alt som er igjen er selve coveret, som Shuster greide å redde.

Siegel og Shuster greide ikke å la Superman være, selv etter nederlaget med den første tegneserien. En lys sommernatt klarte ikke Siegel å sove, og han begynte å tenke ut historien om Superman slik vi kjenner ham. Han skrev manus til ukevis med Superman-historier frem til sola rant og da løp han til Joe Shuster og fikk kameraten til å tegne historiene, inkludert oppfinnelsen av Clark Kent, Lois Lane og Superman's kjente røde, gule og blå kostyme.

Kameratene hadde nå masse avisstriper med Superman som de forsøkte å selge til forskjellige aviser i løpet av de neste tre årene, men stadig vekk uten hell. Til slutt sendte de serien til nok et avissyndikat, McClure, der redaktør Sheldon Mayer ble begeistret! Dette er akkurat det vi er på utkikk etter! Dessverre klarte han ikke å overtale sin sjef igjen, M.C. Gaines til å publisere stripene - men da DC Comics utgiver Harry Donenfeld ringte Gaines i søken etter en ny tegneserie til det nye bladet Action Comics, sendte Gaines ham Superman. Donenfeld viste det til sin redaktør, Vince Sullivan, som kjøpte serien og sa "det ser bra ut... det er annerledes... og det er masse action! Dette er det ungene vil ha!"

For å møte bladets deadline måtte Joe Shuster brekke om avisstripene til bladstriper og forkorte handlingen. Resultatet ble en enestående suksess! Imidlertid hadde kameratene solgt selve konseptet om Superman billig ($130 ifølge enkelte), og de hadde nå ikke lenger kontroll over figuren. Joe Shuster fikk lønn pr side han tegnet frem til han begynte å få problemer med synet i 1947 og måtte gi seg som tegner. Jerry Siegel skrev Superman-historiene samt andre tegneserier for DC Comics frem til 1948. Det som sannsynligvis gjorde at Siegel og Shuster mistet kontraktene med DC Comics var følgende: I 1945, mens Siegel og Shuster var i det militære, begynte DC Comics å publisere historier om Superboy - eventyr fra Superman's ungdomstid. Dette uten å si fra til Siegel og Shuster. Forfatterne gikk til rettssak og fikk medhold i at Superboy og Superman var to forskjellige tegneseriefigurer, og DC Comics måtte ut med en pen sum ($100 000 ifølge enkelte) til de to opphavsmennene. Dette betydde at forholdet mellom de to og forlaget ble en smule anstrengt, og de fikk ikke fornyet kontraktene sine. Siegel egnet han seg til andre tegneseriefigurer, men fikk færre og færre oppdrag og familien hans sultet. Til slutt, i 1958 ble han nødt til å krype til korset og tryglet og ba DC Comics om å få lov til å komme tilbake og jobbe for de. Her fikk han beskjed om at han kunne fortsette å skrive Superman-historier, så lenge han nektet for at det var han som hadde oppfunnet Supermann. Hans andre periode som manusforfatter for Superman varte fra 1959 til 1964. En kommentar fra ham om at han burde bli bedre behandlet førte visstnok til at han på nytt fikk avskjed. I 1978, etter hvert som det ble mer og mer publisitet rundt den nye Superman-filmen, tok Neal Adams og et stort antall prominente serieskapere til orde for å gi Siegel og Shuster den anerkjennelsen de fortjente og noen slags finansiell kompensasjon. Etter påtrykk fra sine nye eiere Warner Communications, ga DC seg omsider: Siegel og Shuster ble igjen nevnt som Superman-skaperne i tegneseriebladene, og de fikk hvert sitt årlige stipend, som startet på $20,000 pr. år, men ble indeksregulert og var visstnok mye høyere ved deres død. Joe Shuster døde i 1992 og Jerry Siegel i 1996. I 1999 gikk Siegels arvinger til sak og vant halvparten av opphavsrettighetene til Supermann-figuren. Dette var mulig på grunn av endringer i loven om opphavsrettigheter i USA. DC Comics eier den andre halvparten.

Superman fikk raskt sitt eget blad, samtidig som han opptrådte i Action Comics, World's Finest, Justice Legion of America osv osv. Selv om alle var månedsblader fantes det nok titler til at man kunne kjøpe et blad med Supermann i hver uke.

[rediger] Supermann i Norge

Den første superhelttegneserien i Norge kom Serieforlaget med i 1952. Forlaget, som senere skiftet navn til SE-Bladene, valgte å presentere den aller første superhelten fra forlaget DC Comics, Superman. Serien fikk navnet Stålmannen på norsk. Sannsynligvis kom navnet via Sverige, der de hadde utgitt Stålmannen som eget blad siden 1940-tallet. Superman debuterte i Sverige allerede i 1939 i bladet Teknik för Alla, men hadde der tittelen Övermänniskan («Overmennesket"), også kjent som Titanen från Krypton. Serien fortsatte i Science fiction bladet Jules Verne Magasinet i 1940. Eget blad i Sverige fikk han i 1949 og da som Stålmannen. Og allerede den gangen fantes en egen Stålmannen-klubb i Sverige.

Supermann ble altså gitt ut med 25 blader i Norge i perioden 1952-1954 under navnet Stålmannen. Det kom ut 7 blader i 1952, 12 i 1953 og 6 i 1954 før bladet gikk inn. Bladene var i sort/hvitt med sjatteringer i rødt, omslagene var i fire farger. I 1953 kom også Lynvingen som eget blad. Begge seriene sluttet allerede i 1954 etter en tids debatt i norske media hvor enkelte blant annet gikk så langt som å forlange 18-årsgrense på bladene! Norge var ikke klar for superhelter. Det samme skjedde i Danmark, Superman gikk inn.

Det skulle gå elleve år før neste DC-hefte utkom i Norge. Det var igjen SE-bladene som sto for bladet, som fikk navnet Rommets helter da det dukket opp i 1965. I 1966 kom både Supermann og Lynvingen tilbake som egne blader igjen. Denne gangen hadde Superman fått navnet Supermann. Bladene hadde fargeomslag men innholdet var i sort/hvitt. Det kom også to spesialnumre i 1966 som gjenopptrykket noen av de gamle fortellingene fra Stålmannen perioden, disse hadde fargeinnslag i rødt inne i bladet, slik Stålmannen også hadde hatt. I 1967 kom Superboy og Lynet. Dette var starten på superheltserienes storhetstid i Norge. I tillegg til tegneserier DC Comics, ble også tilsvarende tegneserier fra Marvel Comics en del av det norske tegneseriemarkedet. I 1968 kom Marvels superhelter til Norge, og serier som Edderkoppen (Spider-Man), Fantastiske Fire (Fantastic Four), Demonen (Daredevil), Koloss (Hulk) og Jernmannen (Iron Man) figurerte i egne blader. De var i svart/hvitt, men gikk snart inn igjen.

Supermannbladet på 60-tallet hadde som regel et spennende fargecover der Mannen av stål var i skikkelig fare - men om man leste historien inne i bladet fant man som regel ut at omslagstegningen var en overdrivelse. Supermann og hans kolleger Lynvingen (Batman), Lynet (The Flash) og Rommets Helter (Legion of Super-Heroes) fra DC var i svart/hvitt inne i bladene. I løpet av 1969 fikk de overlevende titlene, Supermann og Lynvingen ny logo. I slutten av 1970 gikk man over til farger inne i bladene.

Bladet Gigant utkom dessuten med sitt første nr i 1969, og her gjestespilte Supermann regelmessig - noen ganger i solohistorier, men som regel sammen med Lynvingen eller Lovens Voktere. I Supermann ble Superklubben dannet, hvor leserne kunne sende inn noen få kroner i frimerker og få diplom, jakkemerke og eget medlemsnummer. Man kunne skrive inn til en leserbrevspalte og sende inn selvtegnede tegninger. Og man kunne få kjøpt tøffe T-skjorter med S-logoen på, riktignok var t-skjorta hvit, ikke blå. I Superklubbens spalter svarte redaktøren for bladet på spørsmål fra leserne, men dessverre så virket det ikke som om fagkunnskapen hverken om Supermanns historie eller om DC's Superunivers var på topp i det norske forlaget. I 1978 forsøkte Atlantic forlag seg med Marvel-helter. Nå var heftene i farger, og denne gangen gikk det bedre, spesielt med Edderkoppen.

Superheltenes gullalder i Norge varte til slutten av 80-tallet med et varierende utvalg av serier. Men alle ting har en ende - så også DC-serier i Norge. Én etter én sluttet dem. I perioden 1982-84 ble bladet Supermann og bladet Lynvingen slått sammen til bladet Superserien (samme skjedde i Sverige under navnet Supermagasinet). Superserien skiftet deretter navn til Supermann i 1985. Dette heftet holdt det gående som månedsblad til 1991, da det ble lagt ned. Ved siden av Supermann-heftet ble det også gitt ut andre DC-superheltutgivelser som antologien DC Presenterer samt ulike album og spesialutgivelser med Lynvingen. Siden 1991 har det vært publisert lite Supermann i Norge. Noen få historier har vært på trykk i heftet Gigant fra 2002 til 2005, men bladet ble lagt ned før alle episodene av Supermann-fortsettelseshistorien "Birthright" var blitt publisert. I forbindelse med spillefilmen "Superman Returns", ble det sommeren 2006 gitt ut et eget blad med tegneserieversjonen av filmen.

I 2005 startet Egmont Serieforlaget opp bokklubben "Alle tiders superhelter". Så langt er det gitt ut to bøker med Superman. "Mannen av stål" fra 2005 samler utvalgte historier med figuren fra starten i 1938 og frem til 2004. Høsten 2006 kom "Årets mann", som er en norsk utgave av miniserien "Superman For All Seasons" av Jeph Loeb og Tim Sale.

Selv om det nå ser rimelig svart ut for flere blader med Supermann i Norge, så kan man vel med rimelighet anta at selve figuren Supermann lever videre. På 90-tallet ble han holdt friskt i minne i Norge ved hjelp av TV serien "Lois & Clark - The New Adventures of Superman", en serie som stadig har vært sendt i reprise. Nå for tiden er det Clark Kent som herjer i Smallville, det kommer en ny stor Hollywood-film om Supermann og i kjølvannet av denne forventer man oppfølgere samt selvsagt dataspill bygget på filmen. I tegnefilmkanalen Cartoon Network går "Justice League" der Supermann har en sentral plass..

Foreløpig kan vi vel dermed si at Supermann ikke ser ut til å gå i glemmeboken, samtidig med at han blir oppdaget av nye generasjoner.

[rediger] Supermann i filmer

[rediger] Kirk Alyn

Kirk Alyn (1911 - 1999) var den første skuespilleren som fremstilte Superman på film. Sam Katzman, en suksessrik filmprodusent for Columbia fikk jobben med å produsere en filmserie med Superman i 1948 og regissør var Spencer Bennet. Spesialeffektene som når Superman fløy, var tegnefilmscener i samme stil som Supermannfilmene til Fleischer cartoons. Filmserier var ganske vanlig på kino i Amerika på denne tiden. Et annet navn på disse episodefilmene var «cliffhangers», fordi sluttscenen alltid var så spennende at man simpelthen bare MÅTTE gå på kino neste uke for å få med seg fortsettelsen. Hver episode var kort, bare på ca. 15 minutter og ble vist som en slags forfilm til en helaftens spilefilm. Serien var et naturlig utviklingstrinn for Superman på bakgrunn av at hørespillserien om Superman på radio var blitt så populær. En del av de ingrediensene som var oppfunnet i radioprogrammene var med: Avisa «Daily Planet», kryptonitt og skikkelsene Perry White og Jimmy Olsen. I første episode får vi selve opprinnelsen til Superman fortalt, mye på samme måte som den historien vi kjenner fra Superman 1 - filmen med Christopher Reeve, med noen små forandringer. Krypton, Superman's hjemplanet, var befolket med en rase supermenn og - kvinner. Blant lederne var Jor-el, Kryptons fremste vitenskapsmann som planla å bygge en flåte av romskip for å evakuere den dødsdømte planeten. Dessverre nekter regjeringen å innse at planeten er fortapt og Jor-El rekker bare å sende avgårde sin sønn Kal-El i en liten prototype av et romskip før Krypton sprenges i fillebiter. Da raketten lander på jorda, blir Kal-El adoptert av et barnløst ektepar. Stefarens navn er Eben Kent, stemorens navn får vi alri vite. Etter hvert som Kal-El, nå omdøpt til Clark Kent blir voksen, dør foreldrene og han flytter til storbyen Metropolis. Her blir han kjent som journalist i Daily Planet og som Superman - som stadig vekk redder byens innbyggere fra forskjellige farer og katastrofer. Lois Lane dukker opp i hans liv. Hun spilles av Noel Neill, ei rødhåra jente med norske aner. Etter den første filmserien, spilles det inn en til: Superman and the Atom Man. Atommannen er en superskurk som viser seg å være Lex Luthor i forkledning.

Kirk Alyn og Noel Neill dukker senere opp igjen som statister i Superman 1 - filmen med Christopher Reeve fra 1977 i en togscene der de fremstiller foreldrene til unge Lois Lane. Denne scenen ble dessverre kuttet ut fra filmen, men er restaurert inn igjen i den spesialversjonen som er ute på DVD i USA nå.

[rediger] George Reeves

George Reeves (virkelige navn: George Keefer Brewer, senere George Bessolo) (1914 - 1959) var den andre skuespilleren som gestaltet Superman på film. De to filmseriene med Kirk Alyn var en formidabel suksess, og man ønsket nå å videreføre skikkelsen på det nye mediet: TV. I 1951 besluttet man derfor å lage en "pilotepisode" som skulle vises på kino og som skulle være en forløper for den kommende TV-serien. Det hadde vært naturlig å spørre Kirk Alyn igjen, men han ble ikke spurt - og følte seg såret og forbigått. Valget falt på George Reeves, en skuespiller som hadde hatt en lovende start, men som hadde fått dårligere og dårligere B-filmroller og som nå var klar for bånn av bøtta: TV.

Robert Maxwell fikk jobben med å lede denne nye Superman produksjonen. National Comics som eide Superman-figuren, leide også inn Whitney Ellsworth fra New York kontoret for å forberede et manus til pilotfilmen. Filmingen begynte sommeren 1951 i bakgården på et filmstudio i Culver City, California. Filmen ble kalt Superman and the Mole Men og tok 12 dager å filme. Produsent var Barney Sarecky. George Reeves var Superman og Phyllis Coates var Lois Lane. Superman, Clark Kent, og Lois Lane var de eneste faste rollemedlemmene i filmen, da man ennå ikke var ferdig med castingen til resten av de faste skuespillerne i TV-serien. Filmen var en blanding av science fiction og sosial kommentar, der budskapet var at selv om man sto ovenfor noe ukjent, var det dermed ikke nødvendigvis noe ondsinnet. Dette budskapet om toleranse ovenfor det fremmede var nesten science fiction det også, for det amerikanske publikumet på denne tiden, der nettopp fremmedfrykten og redselen for "den røde fare", kommunismen dominerte. Samtidig med produksjonen av denne filmen, fortsatte Superman hørespillene på radio. Etter at pilotfilmen var ferdig, spilte man inn sesong 1 av TV-serien, 9 episoder regissert av Lee Sholem og 15 av Tommy Carr ble gjort ferdig i løpet av bare 2 og en halv måned! I tillegg delte man opp Superman and the Mole Men i to episoder, omdøpte den til The Unknown People og dermed satt man med 26 episoder av Superman, klar for TV-visning. Det skulle imidlertid drøye ganske lenge før de skulle bli vist. Superman and The Mole Men hadde premiere på kino i November 1951 og ble en umiddelbar suksess. Publikum var imponert over verdigheten og den ærlige overbevisningen som George Reeves brakte til rollen som Superman.

Mens filmen gikk sin seiersgang på kino, drev produksjonsteamet og klippet og redigerte TV-episodene og lagde spesialeffekter, bakgrunner og temamusikk.

Tidlig i 1953 nådde disse første episodene endelig sitt TV-publikum. Første episode var temmelig lik den første episoden med Kirk Alyn, Supermans opprinnelse ble gjenfortalt med Krypton og Jor-El og det hele. Denne gangen ble Clark Kents stemor navngitt: Sarah. Stefaren ble fortsatt omtalt som Eben. Showet var en øyeblikkelig suksess, og fikk mye medieomtale, samt var et hett samtaleemne mellom TV-titterne. National Comics bestilte prompte enda en sesong på 26 episoder. Produksjonen ble gjenopptatt sommeren 1953, nesten to år siden filmingen av sesong 1 var ferdig. Robert Maxwell og hans team ble erstattet av ny produsent Whitney Ellsworth og ny manusforfatter Mort Weisinger. Weisinger kom fra jobben som redaktør av tegneseriene om Superman, og derfor ble det en tettere integrering mellom tegneseriene og TV-filmene fra nå av, samt at det ble lagt mindre vekt på spenning og mer på humor enn i sesong 1.

Phyllis Coates hadde bestemt seg for å ikke spille rollen som Lois Lane lenger, av frykt for å bli for tett assosiert med rollen, samme grunn som Kirk Alyn hadde hatt tidligere. Hennes perfekte erstatning ble norskættede Noel Neill, den rødhårete skuespillerinnen som allerede hadde spilt Lois Lane i Kirk Alyn-filmene i 1948 og 1950 for Columbia Studios. I 1953 produserte Whitney Ellsworth enda 26 episoder til. Farger ble introdusert i 1954 og ville bli brukt i de gjenstående episodene, innspilt fra 1954 til 1957. Kulissene fikk et nytt malingsstrøk, og garderobene ble gjennomgått på nytt med tanke på at de nå skulle vises på fargefilm. Det første kostymet som måtte byttes ut var George Reeves brune og grå superman-drakt, fra nå av måtte uniformen være blå, rød og gul som i tegneseriene. Man måtte imidlertid passe på at det var nok kontrast mellom rødfargen og blåfargen til at de ville skille seg fra hverandre selv om man så den i svart og hvitt, i og med at farge-TV ennå kun var på eksperimentstadiet. Det skulle enda gå ti år før fargefjernsyn begynte å bli standard i USA. Grunnen til at man gikk over til å filme Superman med fargefilm var at man ønsket å sette sammen noen av TV-episodene til helaftens spillefilmer som kunne vises på kino i ettertid.

Da serien gikk inn i 1957, hadde George Reeves blitt den definitive Superman for en hel generasjon av amerikanske TV-tittere. Etter et par års pause begynte man å planlegge nok en serie med Superman TV-filmer og George Reeves var atter en gang klar til å ikle seg kappen for en serie som skulle begynne i 1960. Dessverre så ble han enten drept eller begikk selvmord i sitt eget hjem i mai 1959, før produksjonen hadde startet opp. Politirapporten konkluderer med selvmord, enda fingeravtrykkene hans ikke var på våpenet. Uten George Reeves ble det ikke noe av den planlagte TV-serien, man trodde ikke publikum var klar for å akseptere en annen skuespiller i rollen som mannen av stål, og det skulle gå nesten to tiår før verden igjen skulle stifte bekjentskap med Superman på det hvite lerretet. Noel Neill og Jack Larson, skuespillerne som spilte Lois Lane og Jimmy Olsen ble tett assosiert med sine rollefigurer på grunn av TV-seriens popularitet. Dette forhindret dem i å få ytterligere TV- og filmroller etter seriens slutt. De har begge to dukket opp i biroller i senere film- og TV-serier om Superman, samt har deltatt i dokumentarer om Superman-serien. I en alder av 85 år spilte Noel Neill inn en scene i 2006-filmen "Superman Returns". Jack (Jimmy Olsen) Larson deltar også.

[rediger] Christopher Reeve

Christopher Reeve (1952 - 2004) var den tredje skuespilleren som gestaltet Superman på film. For den generasjonen som så hans filmer først er han nok den definitive Superman, på samme måte som den generasjonen som var TV-tittere på femtitallet anser George Reeves som "The Man of Steel". Det hele startet med at filmrettighetene til Superman ble kjøpt av Alexander og Ilya Salkind. TV-rettighetene tilhørte fremdeles produksjonsselskapet til 50-tallsserien The Adventures of Superman, men filmrettighetene var altså til salgs. Far og sønn Alexander og Ilya Salkind kjøpte ikke bare rettighetene til Superman, men til hele Superfamilien, inkludert Superboy og Supergirl. De hyret inn Richard Donner til å regissere Superman-filmene, John Williams til å komponere den mektige musikken, og Mario "Gudfaren" Puzo til å skrive manus. I tillegg punget de ut for å få Marlon Brando til å spille Supermans far Jor El, og Gene Hackman til å spille erkerivalen Lex Luthor. Men som Superman/Clark trengte de en ukjent skuespiller. Mange prøvespilte, men Chris Reeve var den ubestridt beste, ikke minst fordi han fikk Clark og Superman til å virke såpass forskjellige at man nesten kunne tro at det dreide seg om to forskjellige personer. I alt ble det lagd fire Superman-filmer med Chris Reeve, og man kan si at kvaliteten sank for hver nye film. Den fjerde filmen ble aldri satt opp på kino her til lands, den kom rett ut på videokassett. Richard Donner regisserte de to første filmene som ble innspilt samtidig, men fikk sparken etter at den første filmen var i boks. Richard Lester overtok det som var igjen av film nr 2 og regisserte på egen hånd Superman 3. Det er Sidney J. Furie som regisserte Superman IV: The Quest for peace.

[rediger] Dean Cain

Dean Cain (1966 - ) var den fjerde filmskuespilleren som gestaltet Superman. Han debuterte som Superman i en alder av 27. Til sammenligning var Kirk Alyn 37 ved debuten, George Reeves var også 37 og Christopher Reeve var 26. LOIS & CLARK: THE NEW ADVENTURES OF SUPERMAN var navnet på TV-serien med Dean Cain. Den tok på en måte over der The Adventures of Superboy sluttet. Sistnevnte ble tatt av luften i 1992, og Lois & Clark debuterte i 1993 på amerikanske skjermer. Gerard Christopher som hadde spilt Clark Kent/Superboy i The Adventures of Superboy prøvespilte for den samme rollen i Lois & Clark og var produsentens favoritt. Men da det kom for en dag at han allerede hadde spilt denne rollen tidligere, gikk jobben til andrevalget, Dean Cain.

Lois & Clark dreide seg, som tittelen antyder, om det evige trekantforholdet mellom Clark Kent, Lois Lane og Superman. Lois elsker Superman og ser på Clark som en venn. Superman/Clark derimot, vil at Lois skal elske ham som Clark, da Clark ikke bare er en hemmelig identitet men den "virkelige" personen bak supermannen. Vel å merke i DETTE TV-showet. Mye av handlingen dreier seg dermed om personene Clark og Lois, Clark ifører seg Supermandrakten kun i noen få minutter pr episode. I løpet av TV-serien oppdager Lois at Clark er Superman og paret blir omsider gift. Dette skjer også parallelt i tegneseriene om Superman, i samme uke som de blir gift på skjermen. Det var opprinnelig tegneserieskribent Elliot S! Maggin som fikk ideen allerede på 70-tallet at Clark og Lois skulle forelske seg for til slutt å bli gift. Dette ble imidlertid motarbeidet av redaktøren for DC Comics, men da bladselskapet fikk en KVINNELIG redaktør, Jeanette Kahn, ble det omsider gitt klarsignal for ekteskapet. Kahn's opprinnelige tittel på TV-serien var "Lois Lane's Daily Planet".

Teri Hatcher hadde rollen som Lois Lane, Lane Smith som Daily Planets sjefredaktør Perry White, og Michael Landis som Jimmy Olsen. Etter sesong 1 ble Landis byttet ut med Justin Whalen.

TV-serien ble en fenomenal suksess og ble solgt til en rekke land, til og med Norge! Wow!

I tillegg til staben ved Daily Planet, er andre store roller i serien Supermans erkerival Lex Luthor og hans adoptivforeldre Martha og Jonathan Kent. Phyllis Coats (første Lois Lane i George Reeves' The Adventures of Superman på femtitallet) hadde noen gjesteopptredener i rollen som Lois Lanes mor. I en annen episode spiller Jack Larson (Jimmy Olsen i The Adventures of Superman) en aldrende Jimmy Olsen.

Noe som var litt irriterende for gamle Supermanlesere, var at Dean Cain hadde rufsete hår som Clark, og glatt oljekjemmet tilbakestrøket hår som Superman. I tegneserien er det jo Superman som alltid har en hårlokk hengende foran panna. Mer i tråd med forandringer i tegneserien var at Lex Luthor ikke lenger er en gal, forbrytersk vitenskapsmann - men en gal, forbrytersk, sjarmerende forretningsmann og mangemillionær. I TV-serien er han dessuten utstyrt med hår. Lois & Clark: The New Adventures of Superman gikk i fire sesonger, fra 1993 til 1996. Bryllupet mellom Lois og Clark fant sted i 1996.

Teri Hatcher og Dean Cain ble veldig populære og figurerte i blader og magasiner i den perioden som serien gikk. I ettertid forsvant de imidlertid fra mediabildet og figurerte ikke lenger på kjendissidene i den kulørte pressen. Hatcher gjorde comeback i en ny, suksessrik serie ni å etter Lois & Clark med "Frustrerte Fruer".

[rediger] Brandon Routh

Brandon Routh (1979 - ) blir den femte Superman. Warner Bros. Pictures annonserte 21/10-04 at Brandon Routh, en 25 år gammel mann fra Iowa med TV og filmerfaring som skuespiller, har fått rollen som Superman i den kommende Superman-filmen som regisseres av Bryan Singer. Nyheten ble offentliggjort av Jeff Robinov, President for Production for Warner Bros. Pictures. Brandon Routh er altså to år yngre enn Tom Welling, som spiller den unge Clark Kent samtidig som Brandon spiller den litt eldre Clark! Superman-filmen "Superman Returns", kan vi forvente å se på kino sommeren 2006. Produsenter er Jon Peters, Bryan Singer og Gilbert Adler basert på et manus av Michael Dougherty & Dan Harris. Lex Luthor spilles av Kevin Spacey, og Lois Lane av Kate Bosworth. Filmhistoriens aller første Lois Lane, den nå 85 år gamle Noel Neill (fra Kirk Alyn-filmene og George Reeves TV-serien) har også en liten gjesterolle. Routh ble valgt ut til rollen som Superman i kjølvannet av en lang søken som pågikk i USA, UK, Canada og Australia. Tusenvis(!) av kandidater ble intervjuet før man foretok valget. Singer kommenterte valget av stjernerollen slik "I motsetning til alle spekulasjonene som har pågått, så var det alltid min absolutte intensjon å få inn en ukjent skuespiller i denne rollen. Brandon er en meget god skuespiller som har de fysiske kvalifikasjonene som skal til for å spille Clark Kent/Superman. Men han kroppsliggjør også den arven og historien til denne figuren på en måte som gjør meg sikker på at han er det riktige valget." "Vi respekterer og setter pris på den intense interessen som fans rundt om i verden har for Superman, og vi var land og strand rundt i vår søken etter en talentfull skuespiller som kunne representere utseendet, karakteren og personifiseringen av ham," sa Robinov. "Vi synes Brandon er en talentfull ung mann som kan sprute ny energi i dette ikonet og underholde et nytt publikum om legenden om Superman." Rouths TV-roller inkluderer opptredener i One Life to Live, Gilmore Girls, Will & Grace, og Cold Case. Han avsluttet nylig sin første filmrolle i den kommende "Deadly", der han spiller mot Laura Prepon.

[rediger] Tom Welling

Thomas John Patrick Welling (født 26. april 1977 i New York) er en amerikansk skuespiller. Welling er best kjent for sin rolle som Clark Kent i TV-serien Smallville.

Tom Welling startet sin karriere i Smallville der han hadde rollen som Supermann. I serien kjemper Clark Kent for å få orden på super kreftene sine, kjærligheten og venner. Tom spilte sin første spillefilm i filmen Cheaper by the Dozen eller Dusinet fullt som den heter på norsk, hvor han spilte den nest eldste av tolv søsken.

Tom Welling er født og oppvokst i New York. Før han ble skuespiller var han modell. I 1999 var han med i seks episoder av Judging Amy. Etter hans opptreden i Judging Amy fikk han rollen som Clark Kent.

Visste du at Tom Welling bruker skostørrelse 14 i amerikansk måling.

Tom lever seg så bra inn i rollen sin at han oppfører seg som en helt i hverdagen. En gang så han en kvinne som ble ranet og Tom løp bort til henne og ordna opp konflikten. Kvinnen så på ham og sa: «Wow, you really are Superman» (Wow, du virkelig er Supermann!). Tom begynte bare å le.

Tom Welling gjorde noen modelloppdrag for et modellbyrå i USA, Louisa Modeling Agency.

[rediger] TV-serier

    * Adventures of Superman
    * Lois & Clark - The New Adventures of Superman
    * Justice League
    * Smallville



Supermann
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Supermann (tidlegare også Stålmannen; engelsk Superman) er ein figur i tegneserien Superman av DC Comics. Supermann blei fødd som Kal-El på planeten Krypton, og blei som barn send til jorda av faren hans, Jor-El, og mora, Lara rett før Krypton eksploderte. Fartøyet med Kal-El landa på jorda utanfor byen Smallville, der Kal-El blei oppdaga og adoptert av Jonathan og Martha Kent, som kalte han Clark Kent.

Etterkvart som Clark voks opp, oppdaga han at han hadde spesielle krefter og evner. Han bruker desse kreftene til å kjempe mot vondskap og redde liv. Men som Clark Kent jobbar han som journalist for avisa Daily Planet i byen Metropolis.


Superman - fikcyjna posta komiksowa, która po raz pierwszy pojawia si w pierwszym numerze magazynu Action Comics #1 w 1938. Posta Supermana zostaa stworzona przez Joe Shustera i Jerrego Siegela[1]. Uwaany jest za pierwszego superbohatera.
Spis treci
[ukryj]

    * 1 Historia Supermana
          o 1.1 Zoty Wiek Komiksu (lata 30-50.)
          o 1.2 Srebrny Wiek Komiksu (lata 50-60.)
          o 1.3 Brzowy Wiek Komiksu (lata 60-80.)
          o 1.4 Wspóczesne Czasy
    * 2 Wrogowie Supermana
    * 3 Adaptacje
          o 3.1 Filmy fabularne
          o 3.2 Seriale animowane
          o 3.3 Seriale aktorskie
          o 3.4 Filmy animowane
    * 4 Przypisy
    * 5 Linki zewntrzne

Historia Supermana [edytuj]
Uwaga! W dalszej czci artykuu znajduj si szczegóy fabuy lub zakoczenia utworu.

Zoty Wiek Komiksu (lata 30-50.) [edytuj]

Wedug historii pokazanej w oryginalnej serii komiksów (Action Comics #1 (1938), Superman (Vol. 1) #1 (1939), oraz Superman (Vol. 1) #61 (1949)) — szanowany naukowiec Jor-L (imi zmienione potem na Jor-El) odkrywa, e jego rodzinnej planecie, Kryptonowi, grozi cakowite zniszczenie. Mimo e nie udaje mu si przekona mieszkaców Kryptonu do ewakuacji [1] - on sam decyduje si zbudowa niewielki statek, w którym umieszcza swojego nowo narodzonego syna Kal-Ela. Statek odlatuje z Kryptonu na chwil przed jego eksplozj obierajc kierunek w stron planety Ziemi. [2]

Statek wraz z Kal-Elem lduje w okolicy miasteczka Smallville gdzie jako pierwsi odnajduj go Jonathan i Martha Kent(w pierwszych komiksach nie ma podanego ich nazwiska ani adnych detali), samotne maestwo farmerów.[3] W tajemniczym statku odkrywaj maego chopca, którego zabieraj do domu i wkrótce potem adoptuj. Chopiec otrzymuje imi Clark Kent.

Powoli odkrywa on i rozwija swoje niezwyke umiejtnoci, a po mierci swoich przybranych rodziców przenosi si do Metropolis, by podj prac reportera. Tam równie poznaje Lois Lane, swoj najwiksz mio.[4]

W Zotym Wieku Komiksu wiele elementów historii Supermana jest dopiero rozwijanych a jego moce s znacznie mniejsze w stosunku do tych, które posiada wspóczesna wersja Supermana. Take o swoim Kryptoniaskim pochodzeniu Superman dowiaduje si dopiero w komiksie "Superman" (Vol. 1) #61 (1949).[5] Pocztkowo Superman walczy gównie z takimi przestpcami jak skorumpowani policjanci, politycy, biznesmeni. ("Superman" #1,#2,#3,#7). Pod koniec lat czterdziestych po raz pierwszy pojawiaj si bardziej niezwykli przeciwnicy, jak na przykad dinozaury, giganci, szaleni naukowcy. Charakter Supermana take jest odmienny od tego, który przedstawiano potem. Jest bardziej gwatowny, agresywny, dziaa z zimn krwi. Stopniowo autorzy czyni go jednak coraz bardziej agodnym. Take moce Supermana stopniowo wzrastaj. Pocztkowo mówi si, e jest szybszy od leccej kuli, ma si lokomotywy[6] i moe przeskoczy najwyszy budynek. Potem pojawia si jego rentgenowski wzrok, 'laserowy' wzrok, i zdolno do latania. W dalszych latach pojawi si odporno na bezporedni wybuch bomby atomowej (chocia pocztkowo by zdolny wytrzyma tylko wybuch pocisku artyleryjskiego).

W 1949 Superman pojawia si jako jedna z postaci Justice Society of America, pierwszej druyny superbohaterów. (All-Star Comics #8 and #36)

Modziecze przygody Supermana w Smallville ukazuje historia opisana w komiksie Superboy (Vol. 1) #2 (May 1949). Pod tym pseudonimem bdzie pojawia si jeszcze wielokrotnie w seriach komiksów towarzyszcych wersji kanonicznej Supermana.

Srebrny Wiek Komiksu (lata 50-60.) [edytuj]

Zapocztkowana przez pojawienie si nowych superbohaterów, jak np Martian Manhunter, Flash (Barry Allen), Batman, a take koncepcji Ziemi-2 - alternatywnego wszechwiata w którym take yj superbohaterowie. Superman równie pojawia si w komiksach opowiadajcych o Ziemi-2. Pojawiaj si take jego wrogowie - Brainiac i Bizzaro. Na Ziemi przybywa Kara, kuzynka Supermana, która bdzie miaa swoj wasn seri komiksów jako Supergirl.

W Srebrnym Wieku Komiksu historia Supermana zostaje znaczco dopracowana. Dowiadujemy si, e ojciec Supermana by znanym naukowcem na Kryptonie, ojczynie niezwykle zaawansowanej cywilizacji. Na jego planecie, rzdzonej przez Rad Naukowców prowadzono zaawansowane eksperymenty nad moliwoci podróy kosmicznych. W jednym z militarnych eksperymentów zleconych przez generaa Zoda naukowiec Jax-Ur niszczy jeden z dwóch ksiyców Kryptonu. Od tego momentu podróe kosmiczne zostaj zabronione.

Jor-Elowi udaje si jednak zbudowa jeden niewielki statek na chwil przed eksplozj Kryptonu (spowodowan geologiczn niestabilnoci) i skierowa go w stron ziemi.

Poznajemy take wicej detali tyczcych si modoci Supermana.

Dowiadujemy si, e pomaganiem ludziom jako Superboy zajmowa si ju od 8 roku ycia. Pojawia si take wicej szczegóów z uczuciowego ycia Supermana który, jako nastolatek podkochiwa si w Lanie Lang, dziewczynie z ssiedztwa i przyjani si z Petem Rossem. Potem w czasie dziennikarskich studiów w Metropolis pozna Lori Lemaris, jednak tajemnica, któr posiadaa dziewczyna uniemoliwia im kontynuowanie zwizku.

Jako Clark Kent tymczasem koczy uniwersytet na kierunku dziennikarstwo i otrzymuje prac w Daily Planet.

Brzowy Wiek Komiksu (lata 60-80.) [edytuj]

Mimo spadku popularnoci tej formy literatury - przygody Supermana wci s jedn z najlepiej sprzedajcych si serii komiksów.

On sam stopniowo rozwija swoje moce a jego wrogowie staj si coraz potniejsi. Take sam wiat w którym yje Clark Kent/superman staje si coraz bardziej skomplikowany. Dowiadujemy si e oprócz waciwej Ziemi istniej inne, paralelne jej wersje, na których yj równie inne wersje Supermana, nie zawsze tak pozytywne jak waciwy Superman. W niektórych wymiarach - jeden z najwikszych wrogów supermana, Lex Luthor jest jedynym bohaterem i obroc Ziemi - onatym z Lois Lane, w innych - to Superman jest onaty z Lois Lane, a w jeszcze innych Superman jest tylko czci wikszej druyny superbohaterów.

Utrzymanie znaczcej popularnoci posta Supermana zawdzicza take znanej aktorskiej kreacji Christophera Reeava w filmach powiconych przygodom superbohatera.

Wspóczesne Czasy [edytuj]

W latach osiemdziesitych limitowana seria komiksów "Crisis on Infinite Earths' finalnie czy wielowymiarow Ziemi w jeden wymiar a wszystkie inne wersje Supermana, Lexa Luthora i Lois Lane zostaj wymazane z rzeczywistoci.

W roku 1992 pojawia si komiks "The Death of Superman", w którym Superman umiera, podczas pojedynku z besti z Kryptonu, zwan Doomsday. w nastpnych czciach pojawia si kilku pretendentów do nazwy Superman. W tworzeniu jednego z nich pomaga sam Lex Luthor którego mier Supermana nie ucieszya - z powodów osobistych (sam chcia si do tego przyczyni).

Pojawiaj si zatem cyborg Man of Tomorrow, Last Son of Krypton, nowy Superboy - hybryda DNA Supermana oraz Lexa Luthora. Jednake finalnie prawdziwy Superman powraca - tymczasowo pozbawiony mocy a wkrótce po ich odzyskaniu - on i Lois zawieraj maestwo.

(1997, Superman: The Wedding Album) co zbiega si take z maestwem Clarka z Lois w popularnym serialu telewizyjnym "Lois and Clark: The New Adventures of Superman".

Wspóczesne czasy przyniosy take zmiany w charakterach dawnych wrogów Supermana. Wiele zmian wprowadzio zwaszcza pojawienie si serialu Smallville. Ze wzgldu na jego ogromn popularno wydawcy Action Comics zdecydowali si wprowadzi nowe wtki w wieo wydawanych komiksach powiconych przygodom Supermana.

Lex Luthor ukazywany jest jako przyjaciel z dziecistwa Clarka Kenta, który dopiero po jakim czasie odwróci si od niego (wg wersji komiksowych tem bya zazdro i uraona duma) wg wersji serialowej - staa za tym obsesja Luthora na punkcie odkrycia sekretu Clarka oraz konkurowanie o wzgldy Lany Lang. Najnowszy film kinowy Superman:Returns, przyniós równie kilka nowoci. Superman po swoim powrocie z 5-letniej wyprawy do pozostaoci swego rodzinnego Kryptonu - zastaje Lois Lane prowadzc ustabilizowane ycie z Richardem Whitem, bratankiem szefa redakcji Daily Planet. Poznajemy te Jasona White'a, który okazuje si by synem Supermana i Lois Lane.

Film jest lun kontynuacj wersji wydarze z poprzednich kinowych filmów o Supermanie.

Obecnie najwicej uwagi przykuwa nadawany w Stanach Zjednoczonych serial Smallville, traktujcy o przygodach Clarka Kenta, Lany Lang, Lexa Luthora i Lois Lane. Chocia pierwsze sezony serialu oparte byy tylko luno na motywach znanych z komiksów o Supermanie, z czasem twórcy wprowadzili coraz wicej postaci dobrze znanych super-wrogów Supermana (Brainiac, przestpcy z Widmowej Strefy(Phantom zone)) i jego super-przyjació jak Zielona Strzaa (Green Arrow), Impulse, Aquaman, Cyborg, Acrata, etc.

Aktualnie w zapowiedziach na 2009 rok jest kolejna kinowa kontynuacja przygód supermana pod roboczym tytuem "Superman: Man of Steel'. [7]

Wrogowie Supermana [edytuj]

Do najsawniejszych wrogów Supermana nale:

    * Atomic Skull
    * Bizarro
    * Blackrock
    * Brainiac
    * Darkseid
    * Doomsday
    * Conduit
    * Cyborg Superman
    * Equus
    * Genera Zod
    * Gog
    * Imperiex
    * Kryptonite Man
    * Livewire
    * Lex Luthor
    * Metallo
    * Maxima
    * Mongal
    * Mongul
    * Mr. Mxyzptlk
    * Parasite
    * Preus
    * Queen of Fables
    * Silver Banshee
    * Terra-Man
    * Titano
    * The Prankster
    * Toyman
    * Ultraman
    * Ultra-Humanite

Adaptacje [edytuj]

Filmy fabularne [edytuj]

    * 1951 Superman and the Mole Man (re. Lee Sholem)
    * 1978 Superman (re. Richard Donner)
    * 1980 Superman II (re. Richard Lester)
    * 1983 Superman III (re. Richard Lester)
    * 1987 Superman IV: The Quest for Peace (re. Sydney J. Furie)
    * 2006 Superman: Powrót (re. Bryan Singer)
    * 2009 Superman: The Man of Steel (re. Bryan Singer)

Seriale animowane [edytuj]

Czowiek ze Stali zosta par razy przedstawiony w animacji:

    * Fleischer Superman Cartoons (1941)
    * The New Adventures of Superman / The Superman-Aquaman Hour of Adventure / Batman-Superman Hour (lata 60.)
    * Superfriends (1973 - 1986)
    * Superman (1988)
    * Superman: The Animated Series (1996 - 2000)
    * Liga Sprawiedliwych (2001 - 2004)
    * Liga Sprawiedliwych Bez Granic (2004 - 2006)
    * Legion of Superheroes (2006)

Seriale aktorskie [edytuj]

    * Superman (1948)
    * Atom-Man vs Superman (1950)
    * The Adventures of Superman (1952-8)
    * Superboy (1988-92)
    * Lois & Clark (1993-7)
    * Tajemnice Smallville (2001-2009)

Filmy animowane [edytuj]

    * Superman: Brainac Atacks
    * Superman: Doomsday


Superman
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Superman

Superman, numa animação da década de 1940.
Dados sobre publicação
Publicado por  DC Comics
Primeira aparição  Action Comics #1 (Junho de 1938)
Criado por  Jerry Siegel
Joe Shuster
Características do personagem
Alter ego  Kal-El, adotado como
Clark Joseph Kent
Espécie  Kryptoniano
Terra natal  Krypton
Afiliações  Planeta Diário
Liga da Justiça
Legião dos Super-Heróis
Ocupação  Repórter
Base de operações  Metrópolis
Parentesco  Lois Lane (esposa)
Jor-El (pai biológico)
Lara (mãe biológica)
Jonathan Kent (pai adotivo)
Martha Kent (mãe adotiva)
Linda Lee (prima biológica)
Estado atual  Ativo
Codinomes conhecidos  Asa Noturna
Homem-de-Aço
Homem do Amanhã
O Último filho de Krypton
Supernova
Superboy
Superman Prime
Habilidades  Força sobre-humana, velocidade, resistência, invulnerabilidade, sopro congelante, super audição, poderes extra-sensoriais e visuais, longevidade, vôo, inteligência e regeneração.

Nota: Se procura por outros significados, consulte Super-Homem.

Superman (ou Super-Homem[1]) é um personagem fictício cujas histórias em quadrinhos são publicadas pela editora estadunidense DC Comics, uma empresa subsidiária do grupo Time Warner, mas não se restringe a isso, tendo sido adaptado para diversas outras mídias, como cinema, rádio, televisão, literatura e vídeo-game. A personagem é, em seu universo, um super-herói e foi criado pela dupla de autores de quadrinhos Joe Shuster e Jerry Siegel. A personagem foi apresentada na revista Action Comics #1 em 1938 nos Estados Unidos.

Superman nasceu no fictício planeta Krypton e foi chamado pelos seus pais de Kal-El (que significaria Filho das Estrelas no idioma kryptoniano). Foi mandado à Terra por Jor-El, seu pai, cientista, momentos antes do planeta explodir. O foguete aterrisou na Terra na cidade de Smallville (Pequenópolis), onde o jovem Kal-El foi descoberto pelo casal de fazendeiros Jonathan e Martha Kent. Conforme foi crescendo, ele descobriu que tinha poderes diferentes dos humanos normais. Quando não está lutando contra o mal, ele vive como Clark Kent, repórter do Planeta Diário (Estrela Diária em Portugal). Clark trabalha com Lois Lane, com quem hoje é casado.

Superman é um dos mais importantes personagens da cultura pop ocidental, sendo o primeiro herói dos quadrinhos a ter uma revista intitulada com seu nome: Superman #1, publicada no verão de 1939. Além disso, Superman foi licenciado e adaptado para diversas mídias, desde rádio até televisão e cinema. O filme Superman Returns foi lançado em 2006, com uma aceitação abaixo das expectativas.

A origem e poderes do personagem foram sendo expandidos e alterados gradativamente ao longo dos anos para acompanhar a evolução do público. A história do Superman foi alterada para permitir as aventuras do Superboy e outros sobreviventes de Krypton foram criados como Supermoça e Krypto, o supercão. O personagem foi revisado e atualizado, mais recentemente em 1986. John Byrne recriou o personagem, reduzindo os poderes do Superman e apagando diversos personagens da versão oficial das histórias o que atraiu a atenção da mídia. Cobertura da imprensa foi novamente recebida na década de 90, com A Morte do Superman, uma história na qual o personagem era dado como morto[2].

A propriedade sobre o personagem foi objeto de disputa, com Siegel e Shuster reclamando o retorno de sua propriedade legal. Os direitos autorais são novamente objeto de disputa, com a mudança das leis de direitos autorais permitindo à esposa e a filha de Siegel reclamar uma parte dos direitos autorais, levando a uma disputa com a companhia Warner Bros.[3]
Índice
[esconder]

    * 1 Histórico
          o 1.1 Criação
          o 1.2 Publicação
    * 2 Personagem dos Quadrinhos
          o 2.1 Personalidade
    * 3 Poderes
    * 4 Elenco de apoio
    * 5 Superman no Brasil
          o 5.1 Superman ou Super-Homem?
    * 6 Kryptonita
    * 7 Trivialidades
    * 8 Outros meios
          o 8.1 Video games
    * 9 Ligações externas
    * 10 Notas e referências

[editar] Histórico

[editar] Criação

Jerry Siegel e Joe Shuster primeiramente criaram um vilão com poderes telepáticos que pretendia dominar o mundo. Ele apareceu em uma curta história "The Reign of the Superman" (O Reino do Super-homem) da Science Fiction #3, um fanzine de ficção científica que Siegel publicou em 1933[4] Siegel reescreveu o personagem como um herói, mantendo pouca ou nenhuma semelhança com o vilão de mesmo nome, e começou uma jornada de seis anos para encontrar uma editora que publicasse-o. Intitulando-o The Superman, Siegel e Shuster ofereceram-no para a Consolidated Books Publishing, que publicou-o em uma revista em quadrinhos preto-e-branco de 48 páginas intitulada Detective Dan: Secret Operative No. 48. Mesmo recebendo uma carta de encorajamento, a editora nunca mais publicou o personagem novamente. Shuster frustrou-se e destruiu todas as páginas da história, a capa sobrevivendo apenas porque Siegel resgatou-a do fogo. Siegel e Shuster descreveram esta versão do personagem como sendo comparável a Slam Bradley, um personagem que a dupla criou em 1937 para a primeira edição de Detective Comics.[5]

Em 1934 a dupla mais uma vez corrigiu o personagem. Ele tornou-se mais um herói em sua tradição clássica, inspirado por personagens como Sansão e Hércules[6] que lutava para corrigir os erros daqueles tempos, combatendo a tirania e a injustiça social. Nesta época foi introduzido o uniforme, que Siegel disse posteriormente, eles criaram um tipo de uniforme e colocaram um grande S no peito, e uma capa, fizeram-no tão colorido e tão distintivo quanto podiam."[7] O design foi baseado em parte nos uniformes vestidos por personagem do espaço sideral publicados em revistas pulp, bem como em tiras como Flash Gordon,[8] e também parcialmente sugerido pela tradicional vestimenta. Entretanto, a capa é notavelmente diferente da tradição vitoriana. Gary Engle descreveu isso como sem precedentes na cultura popular em Superman at Fifty:The Persistence of a Legend (Superman aos 50: A Persistência de uma Lenda)[9]

A "cueca por cima da calça" foi rapidamente estabelecida como a base para vários uniformes de super-heróis. Esta terceira versão do personagem recebeu extraordinárias habilidades, mesmo que de uma natureza física, ao contrário das habilidades mentais do Superman vilão.[7]

O local e o nome civil do herói foram inspirados em filmes, como disse Shuster em 1983. "Jerry criou todos os nomes. Nós éramos grandes fãs de filmes, e fomos inspirados por alguns atores e atrizes que víamos. Como para Clark Kent, nós combinamos os nomes de Clark Gable e Kent Taylor. E Metrópolis, a cidade base de operações do Superman, veio do filme de Fritz Lang Metrópolis de 1927, que ambos amaram".[10]

Mesmo que estivessem no momento vendendo material para editoras de quadrinhos, notavelmente National Publications, a dupla decidiu expor seu personagem no formato de tiras, preferindo-o em relação ao formato de revistas em quadrinhos que estava se estabelecendo àquele tempo. Eles ofereceram as tiras para Max Gaines, que declinou, e para o United Feature Syndicate, que expressou interesse inicialmente mas finalmente rejeitou as tiras em uma carta datada de 18 de fevereiro de 1937. Entretanto, no que Les Daniels descreve como "uma incrível reviravolta de eventos", Max Gaines terminou posicionando a tira como destaque na nova publicação da Wheeler-Nicholson, Action Comics. Vin Sullivan, editor da nova revista, escreveu à dupla pedindo que as tiras fossem redesenhadas para que se adequassem ao formato das revistas em quadrinhos, requisitando, "oito quadros por página". Entretanto Siegel e Shuster ignoraram isso, utilizando suas próprias experiências e idéias para criar o layout das páginas, com Siegel também identificando a imagem usada para a capa de Action Comics #1 (Junho de 1938), primeira aparição de Superman.[11]

[editar] Publicação

A primeira aparição do Superman foi em Action Comics #1, em 1938. Em 1939, uma série de mesmo nome foi lançada. A primeira edição consistiu principalmente de aventuras já publicadas em Action Comics, mas apesar disso a revista atingiu grande vendagem.[12] 1939 também foi publicado na especial New York World's Fair Comics, que no verão de 1942 virou World's Finest Comics. Com a edição #7 de All Star Comics, Superman fez sua primeira de um número infrequente de aparições, nesta ocasião aparecendo brevemente para estabelecer-se como membro honorário da Sociedade de Justiça da América[13].

Inicialmente Jerry Siegel e Joe Shuster queriam ser responsáveis por toda história e arte de todas as tiras publicadas. Entretando, a visão de Shuster começou a deteriorar-se, e o aumento das aparições do personagem implicou numa sobrecarga de trabalho. Isso fez com que Shuster estabelecesse um estúdio para ajudar na produção da arte[12] embora ele insistisse em desenhar o rosto de todo Superman que o estúdio produzia. Fora do estúdio, Jack Burnley começou fazendo capas e histórias em 1940.[4] Wayne Boring, inicialmente empregado no estúdio de Shuster, começou trabalhando para DC em 1942 fazendo páginas para Superman e Action Comics.[14]

[editar] Personagem dos Quadrinhos

    Ver artigo principal: História do Superman

Superman pronto para entrar em ação.

Superman, dada a natureza seriada da publicação em quadrinhos e a extensão da existência do personagem evoluiu como um personagem conforme suas aventuras se incrementaram. [15] Os detalhes da origem do Superman, relacionamentos e habilidades mudaram significativamente no decorrer da publicação do personagem, do que é considerada a Era de Ouro dos Quadrinhos até a Era Moderna. Os poderes e vilões foram desenvolvidos na década de 40, com o Superman desenvolvendo a habilidade de voar em 1941.[16] O personagem descobriu a origem de Krypton em 1949. O conceito foi originalmente estabelecido para o leitor em 1939, nas tiras diárias do Superman[17] Os anos 60 viram a introdução de um segundo Superman, Kal-L. DC estabeleceu um multiverso dentro do universo fictício que seus personagens habitavam. Isto permitiu que personagens publicados em 1940 existissem ao mesmo tempo que suas contrapartes atualizadas publicadas na década de 1960. Isto foi explicado para o leitor através da noção de que dois grupos de personagens habitavam terras paralelas. O Superman da Terra 2 foi introduzido para explicar ao leitor como o Superman era membro tanto do grupo de super-heróis da década de 1940 Sociedade da Justiça da América quanto do grupo da década de 1960 Liga da Justiça da América.[18].

Os anos 80 viram radicais revisões do personagem. DC Comics decidiu remover o multiverso de modo a simplificar sua linha de quadrinhos. Isso levou a toda história dos personagens DC ser reescrita, incluindo Superman. John Byrne reescreveu Superman, removendo várias convenções estabelecidas e personagens da continuidade, incluindo Superboy e Supergirl. Byrne também reestabeleceu os pais adotivos do Superman como personagens [19] Na continuidade anterior os personagens haviam morrido cedo na vida do Superman (na época em que Clark Kent era um estudante colegial). Os anos 90 viram Superman ser assassinado por um vilão, Apocalypse, [20] mesmo que o personagem tenha sido posteriormente ressuscitado.[21] Superman também casou com Lois Lane, no ano de 1996. Na década de 2000, Superman virou vegetariano, e sua origem foi novamente revisitada em 2004.[22] Em 2006, Superman perde seus poderes,[23] mas eles foram reestabelecidos em um ano fictício[24]

[editar] Personalidade

Na história original de Siegel e Shuster, a personalidade de Superman é rude e agressivo. O personagem é visto combatendo gangsters, violência doméstica, com um código moral pouco ortodoxo.[25] Escritores posteriores suavizaram o personagem, e introduziram um idealismo e um código de conduta moral. Mesmo não sendo tão sangue-frio quanto o Batman original, o Superman apresentado na década de 30 não tinha consciência do dano que sua força podia causar, agredindo vilões de maneira que fatalidades presumivelmente ocorriam, mesmo que não fossem explicitamente mostradas nas página. Isso terminou em 1940, quando o novo editor Whitney Ellsworth instituou um código de conduta para seus personagens seguirem, extinguindo qualquer assassinato causado pelo Superman.[17]

Em Superman/Batman #3, Batman pensa, "Isto é uma interessante dicotomia. De diversas maneiras, Clark é o mais humano de nós todos. Então... ele lança fogos dos céus, e é difícil não pensar nele como um Deus. E como nós somos afortunados que isso não ocorra a sua mente.[26]

[editar] Poderes

    Ver artigo principal: Poderes e habilidades do Superman
    Demonstração de sua super força impedindo um edifício de desabar em um cartoon de 1941.

A suposta origem dos poderes do Superman é o Sol amarelo da Terra. Em Krypton o astro é vermelho, e essa diferença de freqüência eletromagnética entre ambos os astros faria com que, de alguma forma, as células do corpo de Kal-El fossem "carregadas" como verdadeiras baterias vivas.

[editar] Elenco de apoio

    Ver página anexa: Elenco de apoio de Superman

Clark Kent, a identidade secreta do Superman, foi baseado parcialmente em Harold Lloyd e batizado baseado em Clark Gable e Kent Taylor.[27][28] Os criadores discutiram se na verdade o Superman pretende ser Clark Kent ou vice versa, e em diferentes períodos diferentes visões foram adotadas. [29][30] Embora tipicamente um reporter de jornal, durante os anos 70 o personagem deixou o Planeta Diário por um tempo para trabalhar na televisão, durante a reformulação dos anos 80 por John Byrne viu o personagem tornar-se mais agressivo. .[31] Esta agressividade foi sendo diminuidade com os criadores seguidamente restabelecendo o jeito suave tradicional do personagem.

Quando o gibi do Super-Homem chegou ao Brasil, o nome Clark foi mudado para Eduardo e o de Lois Lane para Mirian[32], o que foi corrigido após um tempo. O nome original Clark Kent foi alterado já nas primeiras histórias publicadas pela Ebal. Já Lois Lane só recebeu de volta seu nome original nos anos 80, após ser publicado no Brasil, pela editora Abril, o evento "Crise nas Infinitas Terras" (do qual a editora se aproveitou para fazer a mudança).

O grande elenco de apoio do Superman inclui Lois Lane, talvez a personagem mais conhecida associada ao Superman, sendo retratada diversas vezes, como sua colega, concorrente, interesse amoroso e/ou esposa. Outros importantes personagens de apoio incluem os colegas de trabalho do Planeta Diário como o fotógrafo Jimmy Olsen e o editor Perry White, os pais adotivos de Clark Kent Jonathan Kent e Martha Kent, Lana Lang, seu amor de infância e seu melhor amigo Pete Ross, e o interesse amoroso de faculdade Lori Lemaris (uma sereia); Histórias fazendo referências a possibilidade de filhos do Superman foram apresentadas tanto dentro quanto fora da continuidade principal.

Encarnações da Supermoça, Krypto, o supercão, e Superboy também foram personagens das histórias, bem como a Liga da Justiça (da qual o Superman geralmente é membro). Uma característica importante compartilhada por vários personagens de apoio são os nomes aliterativos, especialmente com as iniciais "LL", incluindo Lex Luthor, Lois Lane, Linda Lee, Lana Lang, Lori Lemaris e Lucy Lane.

Parcerias com o aliado ícone dos quadrinhos Batman são comuns, inspirando várias histórias ao longo dos anos. Quando em dupla, eles são referidos como "Os Melhores do Mundo" (World's Finest) em concordância com o nome da série que apresenta várias histórias das parcerias. Em 2003, DC Comics começou a publicar uma nova série apresentando os dois personagens intitulada Superman/Batman.

Superman também tem uma galeria de vilões, incluindo seu mais conhecido inimigo, Lex Luthor, que foi visto durante vários anos em várias formas desde um cientista louco com uma vendetta pessoal contra o Superman, ou um poderoso mas corrupto CEO de um conglomerado chamado LexCorp [33] Na década de 2000, ele torna-se presidente dos Estados Unidos[34] e foi descrito ocasionalmente como um amigo de infância de Clark Kent. O andróide alien conhecido como Brainiac é considerado por Richard George como o segundo inimigo do Superman mais efetivo.[35] O inimigo que superou os demais, assassinando o Superman, é o monstro em fúria Apocalipse. Darkseid, um dos seres mais poderosos do Universo DC, é também um formidável inimigo nos quadrinhos pós-Crise. Outros inimigos que foram apresentados em várias encarnações do personagem, nos quadrinhos filme e televisão, incluem o duende da quinta dimensão Mr. Mxyzptlk, o Superman reverso conhecido como Bizarro e o criminoso Kryptoniano General Zod.

[editar] Superman no Brasil

Superman apareceu no Brasil pela primeira vez em 1939, no suplemento chamado Gazetinha, do jornal A Gazeta de propriedade do jornalista Cásper Líbero. Com os direitos adquiridos por Adolfo Aizen, as aventuras do Homem de Aço passam para a lendária revista "O Lobinho".

Com a criação da editora Ebal em 1945, o editor Aizen lança as histórias do personagem em uma revista em quadrinhos chamada Superman. A revista foi publicada por 35 anos, de 1947 até 1983, um recorde do gênero. Não conseguindo manter mais os direitos, a Ebal repassou o personagem para a Editora Abril, que seguiu com as publicações até a virada do milênio.

[editar] Superman ou Super-Homem?

Para aqueles que leram as histórias do herói até alguns anos atrás, é estranho ver o nome Superman sendo utilizado, ao contrário da tradução a língua portuguesa, Super-Homem. Não há exatamente um consenso. Os DVDs do herói, por exemplo, trazem o nome "Superman" em suas caixas, o chamam de "Super-Homem" na dublagem em português e "Superman" nas legendas também em português. Já o desenho animado da década de 90 o chamava de "Super-Homem" enquanto em sua continuação direta, Liga da Justiça, ele virou novamente Superman.

Quando as primeiras histórias do personagem chegaram ao Brasil, nos anos 40 e 50, era comum a tradução e a adaptação dos nomes. Sendo assim, a escolha óbvia era Super-Homem, apesar de que sua primeira revista se chamava Superman (Ebal, novembro de 1947) e dentro da revista era chamado de Super-Homem. Entretanto, após várias décadas, a globalização mostrou que ter um nome diferente do país originário do personagem pode ser muito prejudicial financeiramente.

Isso acontece porque bonecos, camisas e outros objetos promocionais são fabricados normalmente em apenas um país (a China, por exemplo) e depois exportados ao mundo todo e, na embalagem, consta o nome original do personagem. Quando o produto chega a um país onde esse nome é diferente, o importador se vê obrigada a gastar ainda mais dinheiro em novas embalagens e adaptações.

Foi por esse motivo que na versão brasileira da série As Novas Aventuras do Superman o nome do super-herói não foi traduzido. Preferiu-se utilizar Superman ao invés de Super-Homem. Com o sucesso da série, o nome Superman se tornou usual entre os fãs. Assim a Editora Abril, que era a responsável pelas histórias em quadrinhos do personagem no Brasil, aproveitou a oportunidade e começou a usar a versão em inglês.

Algo parecido já havia acontecido nos anos 80 dentro do universo do Superman. Desde as primeiras histórias no Brasil o nome de Lois Lane era adaptado como Miriam Lane. A Editora Abril aproveitou os acontecimento da Crise nas Infinitas Terras, em 1987, para poder finalmente grafar o nome da forma original.

[editar] Kryptonita

A Kryptonita é formada de fragmentos radioativos de Krypton, o planeta natal do Super-Homem.

Na Era de Prata, havia vários tipos diferentes de kryptonita:

    * Verde - a mais comum, é fatal a qualquer Kryptoniano, causa fortes dores e pode levar a Morte se a Exposição à sua radiação for Prolongada.
    * Vermelha - causa uma de muitas mutações imprevísiveis em nível físico e mental: pode alterar as emoções do Super-Homem, fazê-lo criar 2 braços extra, torna-lo um anão, um gigante, um dragão, uma criança, separá-lo num Superman mau e um Clark Kent bondoso e sem poderes, dividi-lo em um Superman azul e outro vermelho, torna-lo muito gordo, torna-lo muito cabeludo e barbudo, fazê-lo ficar com cabeça de formiga, fazê-lo incapaz de dizer qualquer coisa sem ser em kryptonês, fazê-lo amnésico, fazê-lo perder a invulnerabilidade na parte esquerda do corpo, etc. Os efeitos duram de 24 a 48 horas, e nunca se repete um mesmo efeito. Aparentemente, cada pedaço de kryptonita vermelha só podia afetar um kryptoniano uma única vez, necessitando outro pedaço para um novo efeito (mas que nunca seria o mesmo)
    * Azul - Letal para Bizarro, mas cura efeitos de outras kryptonitas em Superman (exceto a dourada).
    * Branca - Letal para a vida vegetal.
    * Antikryptonita: Possui o Efeito inverso da Kryptonita Verde, ela não é letal para os Kryptonianos, mas são fatais para os Humanos Normais, ela se formou no solo de Argo City, cidade kryptoniana da Supermoça.
    * kryptonita X: verde, dá poderes quase iguais a o de Superman à humanos normais. Temporário, mas pode ser feito permanente.
    * Dourada - o mais raro isótopo de kryptonita, elimina PERMANENTEMENTE os poderes de kryptonianos a menor exposição, bem como qualquer possibilidade de vir a desenvolve-los. Nem mesmo a kryptonita X ou a azul pode devolvê-los. (felizmente, nas histórias oficiais Superman nunca se expôs a ela, ou seria o fim do Homem de Aço...).
    * kryptonita jóia: criada pelo interno da Zona Fantasma Jax-Ur, esta não é realmente kryptonita, nem mesmo radioativa. Esta pedra permite aos internos da Zona Fantasma a poder influenciar o mundo fora da Zona. Eles podem focalizar suas forças de vontade na pedra a fim de criar os efeitos de poderes mentais que afetam seres humanos da Terra, como hipnose, rajadas mentais, rajadas psicocinéticas, ilusões e controle mental.

Após a Crise nas Infinitas Terras, o Super-Homem ganhou uma nova origem onde existia apenas um tipo de kryptonita: a verde.

Na Série Smallville que conta a história do Superman enquanto jovem, existem alguns tipos de kryptonita:

    * Verde - letal para o Superman
    * Vermelha - faz o lado negro de Superman aflorar
    * Preta - divide (ou une) o lado bom e o lado mal do Superman
    * Prateada - cria ilusões na mente do Superman
    * Azul - Inibe os poderes dos kriptonianos sob o Sol amarelo

[editar] Trivialidades

    * Superman adora leite maltado.[36]
    * A refeição favorita do Super-Homem é Beef Bourguignon.[37]
    * O filme favorito de Clark Kent é To Kill a Mocking Bird (O Sol é para Todos), filme de Robert Mulligan de 1962.[38]
    * Há muita discussão sobre qual a religião de Superman. Eliot S! Maggin, um de seus roteiristas no passado, afirmava que o Superman era metodista. Na cronologia pré-Crise, Superman exclamava bastante "Por Rao!". Este era o nome do sol vermelho que orbitava Krypton. Raoísmo era a religião oficial de Krypton, onde Rao era adorado como um deus. Mas ainda assim, não se sabe se Superman era raoísta ou se ele usava o termo apenas como uma exclamação respeitosa.
    * Superman faz aniversário em 29 de Fevereiro, data escolhida para fazer uma alusão ao fato dele envelhecer quatro vezes mais devagar que os seres humanos.

[editar] Outros meios

    Ver artigo principal: Superman em desenhos animados

    Ver artigo principal: Superman (filme)

    * Entre 1941 e 1942, Superman teve 17 desenhos animados de curta metragem para o cinema, feito pelos estúdios Max Fleischer. Foi o primeiro super-herói adaptado para o meio.
    * Em 1948 e 1950, o Super-Homem estrelou em dois seriados para cinema, interpretado por Kirk Alyn.
    * Em 1951, George Reeves estrelou ao lado de Phyllis Coates no primeiro longa-metragem do Homem de Aço, "Superman and the Mole-Men", estréia 23 de Novembro, junto com a 1º temporada do seriado na TV.
    * Entre 23 de Novembro de 1951 (1º temporada, episódio nº25)[39] a 28 de abril de 1958 (6º temporada, episódio nº13)[40], George Reeves estrelou em 104 episódios para a televisão, que só terminou com a morte de Reeves.[41] George estrelou em 6 temporadas originais (1951 a 1958), para TV, do seriado, "Aventuras de Superman". A 1º temporada testava o mercado com dois episódio, nº25 e nº26. O seriado na TV, nº 25 iniciou simultaneamente com a estréia do longa metragem nos cinemas, "Superman and the Mole-Men" (1951),[42] para promover o longa metragem. O resultado na TV foi positivo e a produção continou a rodar o seriado a partir do 1º episódio, "Superman on Earth" ("Superman na Terra"), em Janeiro de 1952, com a mesma atriz, Phyllis Coates, junto a Reeves, durante toda 1º temporada. Por este motivo, o episódio nº1 só aparece no ano seguinte depois que a primeira temporada já havia iniciado (Obs. A temporada dos programas de TV, nos EUA, não incia no começo de um ano, mas no outono estadunidense).
    * Entre 1966 a 69, o Superman teve seu próprio desenho animado pela Filmation, "The New Adventures of Superman".
    * De 1973 a 1984, o desenho animado Superamigos mostrava Superman como membro efetivo do grupo.
    * Em 1978, foi lançado Superman - O Filme, estrelado por Christopher Reeve e dirigido por Richard Donner. Fez muito sucesso, e teve 4 continuações,Superman II em 1980, Superman III em 1983, Superman IV em 1987 e Superman - O Retorno em 2006, estrelado por Brandon Routh e dirigido por Bryan Singer.
    * Em 1987, a Ruby Spears produziu uma série de 13 desenhos animados para televisão, Superman.
    * Superboy, a série live action exibida de 1988 até 1992 (nos EUA), mostrava Superman como Superboy (o que não condizia mais com a realidade dos quadrinhos; aquele era o Superboy Pré-crise).
    * Entre 1993 e 1996: a série live action Lois & Clark: The New Adventures of Superman, com Dean Cain e Teri Hatcher nos papéis de Superman e Lois Lane.
    * Superman: The Animated Series, um desenho animado da Warner Bros., de 1996 até 2000.
    * Em 2001, foi lançado o seriado Smallville, que conta a adolescência de Clark, interpretado por Tom Welling. Atualmente está na sua oitava temporada.

[editar] Video games

    * 1978: Superman by Atari for the Atari 2600.
    * 1984: Superman III by Atari for the Atari 8-bit family of computers. Unreleased.
    * 1985: Superman: The Game by First Star Software for the Commodore 64.
    * 1987: Superman by Kemco for the Nintendo Entertainment System.
    * 1988: Superman: Man of Steel by Tynesoft for the Commodore 64.
    * 1988: Superman by Taito; Arcade game.
    * 1992: Superman: The Man of Steel by Virgin Interactive for the Sega Master System.
    * 1992: Superman by Sunsoft for the Sega Mega Drive/Genesis.
    * 1994 / 1995: The Death and Return of Superman by Sunsoft for the Super Nintendo and Sega Mega Drive/Genesis.
    * 1995: Justice League Task Force by Acclaim for the Super Nintendo and Sega Mega Drive/Genesis.
    * 1998: Superman by Titus for the Game Boy.
    * 1999: Superman 64 by Titus for the Nintendo 64.
    * 2000: Superman by Titus for the PlayStation.
    * 2002: Justice League: Injustice for All by Midway for the Game Boy Advance. Superman is a playable character.
    * 2002: Superman: The Man of Steel by Infogrames/Atari for the Xbox.
    * 2002 / 2003: Superman: Shadow of Apokolips by Infogrames/Atari for the PlayStation 2 and GameCube.
    * 2003: Superman: Countdown to Apokolips by Infogrames/Atari for the Game Boy Advance.
    * 2003: Justice League: Chronicles by Midway for the Game Boy Advance. Superman is a playable character.
    * 2005: Justice League TV Games unit by Jakks Pacific. Superman is playable in some games, non-playable in others.
    * 2006: Superman: The Greatest Hero by VTech for the V.Smile system.
    * 2006: Superman TV Games unit by Jakks Pacific. Five different games featuring Superman.
    * 2006: Justice League Heroes by Eidos for the PlayStation 2, Xbox and PlayStation Portable. Superman is a playable character and is voiced by Crispin Freeman
    * 2006: Superman Returns by Electronic Arts for the PlayStation 2, Xbox & Xbox 360. Features voices from the cast of the film.
    * 2006: Superman Returns by Electronic Arts for the Nintendo DS.
    * 2006: Superman Returns: Fortress of Solitude by Electronic Arts for the Game Boy Advance.
    * 2008: Mortal Kombat vs DC Universe for Playstation 3 and Xbox 360

[editar] Ligações externas
Portal  A Wikipédia possui o(s) portal(is):
Portal:DC Comics
{{{Portal2}}}
{{{Portal3}}}
{{{Portal4}}}
{{{Portal5}}}
Commons
O Wikimedia Commons possui multimídia sobre Superman
Wikiquote
O Wikiquote tem uma coleção de citações de ou sobre: Superman.

Em português:

    * DAILY PLANET.br - Tudo sobre o universo do Homem de Aço
    * Do Superman americano ao Superman de Nietzche
    * As Origens do Superman
    * Do Superman americano ao Superman de Nietzche
    * Do Superman americano ao Superman de Nietzche
    * Do Superman americano ao Superman de Nietzche
    * Do Superman americano ao Superman de Nietzche
    * Origens do Super-homem por John Byrne
    * Matéria do site HQ Maniacs sobre a reformulação de John Byrne
    * Matéria do site HQ Maniacs sobre os maiores inimigos do Superman

Em inglês:

    * Página oficial do Superman
    * DC Comics - Superman
    * Projeto DC Database: Superman
    * História do Superman nos quadrinhos
    * História do Superman em um minuto
    * Cartoons do Superman
    * DMOZ - Lista de assuntos relevantes relacionados ao Superman
    * Bibliografia comics do Superman



Stålmannen
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Stålmannen

Superman

Stålmannen från 1942.
Förlag  DC Comics
Första framträdande  Action Comics #1 (30 juni 1938)
Skapad av  Jerry Siegel
Joe Shuster
Karakteristiskt
Alter ego  Clark Kent
Noterbara alias:
Nightwing
Supernova
Superboy
Hemvärld  Krypton
Anslutningar  Daily Planet
Justice League
Rymdens hjältar
Viktiga allierade  Batman
Gröna lyktan mfl.
Egenskaper  Superstyrka
Superhörsel
Superhastighet
Supersyn
Superlungor
Röntgensyn

Stålmannen, originaltitel Superman, är en fiktiv figur publicerad första gången den 30 juni 1938[1] av Jerry Siegel och Joe Shuster i den amerikanska serietidningen Action Comics. Senare även utgiven som egen serietidning av DC Comics. Stålmannen är en så kallad superhjälte med övernaturliga krafter. Figuren har också förekommit i många TV-serier och filmer. Stålmannen föddes på planeten Krypton och skickades till jorden av sin far just innan hans planet exploderade. På jorden växte han upp som en människa och antog alter egot Clark Kent, journalist, för att kunna leva ett normalt liv medan han hjälpte världen.
Innehåll
[göm]

    * 1 Handling
    * 2 Övriga figurer i serien
    * 3 Andra Superfigurer
    * 4 Superskurkar
    * 5 Stålmannens krafter
    * 6 Svagheter
    * 7 Utrustning
    * 8 Stålmannens personlighet
    * 9 Historia
    * 10 Ytterligare läsning
    * 11 Tolkningar i övriga medier
    * 12 Kulturella influenser
    * 13 Stålmannen i populärkultur
    * 14 Noter
    * 15 Källor
    * 16 Externa länkar

Handling [redigera]

Sagan om Stålmannens ursprung är en science fiction-version av hjältehistorien där huvudpersonen, exempelvis Gilgamesh, Mose, Kung Arthur och Jesus Kristus, räddas från att dö vid späd ålder genom att skickas bort.

Stålmannen föddes som Kal-El på planeten Krypton. Som spädbarn satte hans far, Jor-El, och hans mor, Lara, honom på ett rymdskepp, strax innan Krypton exploderade. Skeppet landade på jorden där Kal-El blev adopterad av en familj från Smallville, Kansas, och växte upp tills han vid vuxen ålder flyttade till Metropolis. I ursprungsserien (1940-1985) är Stålmannen den verkliga personen och Clark Kent den fasad han visar upp för världen. Som reporter på Daily Planet, en av Metropolis större tidningar, kan Stålmannen tidigt få vetskap om hotfulla händelseförlopp och hjälpa mänskligheten på allra bästa sätt. Kent jobbar där med Lois Lane som Kent är förälskad i. Han får inget gensvar eftersom Lane är förälskad i Stålmannen. Ett triangeldrama med två personer.

Under årtionden avbildades Clark Kents klädombyte till Stålmannen i telefonkiosker. Detta var ovanligt i serietidningen, på grund av risken för upptäckt. Faktum är att Stålmannen oftast bytte om i en lagerlokal på Daily Planet eller på något improviserat ställe.

1986, efter Crisis on Infinite Earths-serierna, anlitade DC Comics skribent/artisten John Byrne för att återskapa Stålmannenkaraktären från grunden. All tidigare kontinuitet dumpades. Nu skapades Stålmannen liksom alla Kryptoniter från in vitro-fertilisering på Krypton. När han fortfarande var ett foster stoppade hans far ner honom i rymdskeppet och skickade iväg det. När skeppet slutligen landade i Smallville hade fostret blivit ett fullt utvecklat spädbarn. Han blev illegalt adopterad av Martha och Jonathan Kent och växte upp som människa. Med tiden började Clarks krafter utvecklas. Först började hans osårbarhet utvecklas och sist möjligheten att flyga - sent i tonåren. Efter att han lämnade Smallville reste han runt i världen för att slutligen flytta till Metropolis där han anlitades som reporter för Daily Planet.

I serien efter 1986 är Clark Kent den riktiga personen och Stålmannen är den hemliga identiteten som han använder för att undvika att hans fiender skadar hans familj eller vänner. Större delen av världen vet däremot inte om att Stålmannen har en vanlig identitet eftersom han inte är maskerad, vilket annars skulle tyda på att han skulle ha något att dölja. Konceptet är att Clark är en riktig man, mer skapad av hans adoptivföräldrars etik än utomjordiska krafter, vilket är en medveten förändring från de tidiga serietidningarna. Lois Lane har dock samma roll: hon är Clarks förälskelse som är förälskad i Stålmannen. I denna serie säger Clark till slut att han är Stålmannen, vilket riskerar att bryta upp deras förhållande, men de gifter sig till slut.

Angående det svenska namnet: svenskan tog namnet från undertiteln "the Man of Steel" - "Mannen av stål" - "Stålmannen" - bland annat för att kunna ha kvar symbolen med ett S på hans kostym. Originaltiteln "Superman" betyder "övermänniska". Då seriefiguren debuterade i Sverige 1939, i tidningen Teknik för alla, kallades den även Övermänniskan.

Övriga figurer i serien [redigera]

Kända figurer kring Clark Kent inkluderar Lois Lane, fotografen Jimmy Olsen och chefredaktören Perry White. Lana Lang är en TV-reporter som är besatt av att avslöja Clark Kent som Stålmannen. Precis som Clark är hon uppvuxen i Smallville.

I Metropolis har Stålmannen en nära relation med polismyndigheten - särskilt Special Crimes Unit (SCU), som arbetar med hot från superskurkar och leds av kapten Margaret Sawyer.

Före Crisis on Infinite Earths dör Stålmannens adoptivföräldrar när han blir vuxen. Numera är båda vid liv och besöks ofta av Clark när han är i svårigheter.

Andra Superfigurer [redigera]

Stålflickan är Stålmannens kusin från Krypton. Hon dödas i Crisis on Infinite Earths. Efter återställningen av Stålmannen 1986 blev Stålflickan återintroducerad som en mer komplex figur.

Det har funnits flera Stålpojkar. Den första introducerades 1944 och kan sammanfattas som "Stålmannen som pojke". Denna Stålpojke finns inte längre eftersom Clark Kent inte blev superhjälte förrän han blivit vuxen. Däremot finns det sedan tidigt 1990-tal en Stålpojke som är en klon av Stålmannen.

Ibland har Stålmannen en hund, Krypto, med samma krafter som sin husse. Före Crisis on Infinite Earths var Krypto Kal-Els husdjur på Krypton, som av misstag blev skickad till jorden i en testkörning. Krypto har alla fysiska fördelar som kryptonier har under gula solar samt intelligensen hos ett mänskligt barn. Efter John Byrnes omstrukturering av Stålmannen 1986 försvinner dock Krypto, för att återintroduceras senare i ett äventyr där Stålmannen är på en falsk Krypton. Denna gång har däremot hunden den intelligens alla väntar sig från hunddjur, men kraften är lika stark. Detta gör Krypto mycket farlig och han hålls oftast inne i Stålmannens fort.

Superskurkar [redigera]

    * Lex Luthor. Före Crisis on Infinite Earths var Lex en kriminell forskare med en vendetta mot Stålmannen. Detta ändras dock till den mer kända ägaren av ett megaföretag, LuthorCorp. Lex Luthor blir senare vald till USA:s president.
    * Brainiac: Före Crisis on Infinite Earths var denna karaktär en utomjordisk android med mål att ta över jorden och döda Stålmannen. Detta ändras senare till en utomjordisk, organisk entitet med samma ambitioner.
    * Morgan Edge: kriminellt överhuvud i Metropolis.
    * Mr. Mxyzptlk: En återkommande besökare från en annan dimension. Han är egentligen inte ond, men han älskar att använda sina magiska krafter till practical jokes. Särskilt eftersom Stålmannen då blir tvungen att rycka ut och rädda folk ur diverse absurda situationer. Själva magin i sig kan dock inte ens Stålmannen rå på. För att bli av med Mxyzptlk måste Stålmannen lura honom att säga sitt namn baklänges (Kltpzyxm). Då försvinner han tillbaka till sin egen dimension och kan inte återkomma till vår värld på 90 dagar.
    * Parasite: Person med superstyrkor och, mer specifikt, kraften att absorbera andras krafter, styrkor och minnen. Försöker naturligtvis att ta över Stålmannens krafter.
    * Bizarro: Starkt felaktig kopia av Stålmannen som försöker emulera originalet, vilket mestadels orsakar förstörelse.
    * Metallo: Kriminell cyborg som föredrar att använda kryptonit till bränsle. Detta gör honom till ett hot mot Stålmannen.
    * Darkseid: En av de mäktigaste superskurkarna i DC Universe.
    * Doomsday: Ett sinneslöst monster, skapat för hundratals tusen år sedan på Krypton. I stort sett osårbar, och enormt kraftfull. I praktiken odödlig, då Doomsday regenererar och inte kan dödas på samma sätt två gånger. Dödade (och dödades av) Stålmannen i ett kataklysmisk strid i Metropolis.
    * Toyman: Även känd under det svenska namnet Leksaksmannen. Han använder leksaker som vapen. Många av dessa leksaker är farliga även för Stålmannen.

Stålmannens krafter [redigera]

Stålmannen marknadsfördes under 1950-talet med att han var "snabbare än en gevärskula, starkare än ett lokomotiv och med styrkan att hoppa över höghus i ett enda svep". En mer detaljerad översikt av krafterna ser ut så här:

    * Superstyrka. Stålmannen kan lyfta flygplan, supertankers och byggnader.
    * Förmågan att flyga.
    * Viss osårbarhet. På 40-talet kunde artillerield skada honom, men inte döda honom. Under 70-talet kunde han flyga genom stjärnor och med lätthet klara sig igenom en kärnvapenexplosion. I dag är Stålmannen fortfarande extremt kraftig och kan klara av dussintals artillerieldar, lasrar och bomber, men skulle dödas om han flög in i en stjärna eller var nära centrum av en kärnvapenexplosion. Dessutom gör hans kraftiga immunsystem honom immun mot de flesta gifter och sjukdomar.
    * Synrelaterade krafter (kallas vanligen Supersyn)
          o Röntgensyn: Förmågan att se genom nästan vilken substans som helst, förutom bly. Stålmannen kan se genom väggar, men inte genom människor på andra sidan.
          o Teleskopsyn: Förmågan att se saker på mycket långa avstånd (varierar från några mil till universums utkant beroende på kontinuitet).
          o Stålmannen kan se hela det elektromagnetiska spektrumet om han så önskar, vilket inkluderar infrarött och ultraviolett och detta ger honom möjlighet att se i mörker.
          o Mikroskopsyn: Möjligheten att se extremt små objekt.
          o Värmesyn: Möjligheten att skicka värme till allt han kan se, som en laser. Strålarna är vanligtvis osynliga för vanliga människor, så att han kan vara diskret då det krävs.
    * Superhörsel: Möjligheten att höra vilket ljud som helst, utan några begränsningar på volym eller gällhet.
    * Superlungor: Möjligheten att skapa orkanvindar genom att blåsa med lungorna. Han kan även frysa ner objekt med andedräkten.
    * Superhastighet: Möjlighet att röra sig med mycket hög hastighet, som Flash. Detta inkluderar att springa och att flyga. Stålmannen flyger snabbare än han springer, i nära ljusets hastighet.

Under 40- och 50-talet var krafterna mer begränsade. De växte till gudomslika proportioner under 60- 70- och tidiga 80-talet. Vid höjden av sin kraft kunde han färdas miljoner ljusår genom universum på kort tid. Så kunde han också oskadd dyka in i stjärnor och med lätthet färdas i tiden genom att färdas snabbare än ljuset. Han kunde flytta planeter och lyfta vilken vikt som helst.

När han gjordes om 1986 blev hans krafter reducerade till en mindre orimlig nivå, vilket kan göra hans äventyr mer spännande. Dock är han fortfarande en av de kraftfullaste av alla superhjältar. Han kan inte längre flyga snabbare än ljuset och skulle kunna dö om han blev träffad av ett kärnvapen. Han har överlevt enorma kärnvapenexplosioner på nära håll, men det har skadat honom allvarligt. Detta ses som den övre gränsen för Stålmannens superförmågor.

Stålmannens krafter har dock ökat det senaste årtiondet. Sen han kommit tillbaka till livet kan nu Stålmannen överleva kärnvapenexplosioner och har överlevt att åka in i solen, vilket faktiskt ökade hans krafter under en kort period. Stålmannens styrka är återigen högre och han kan flytta mycket tyngre vikter än vad han kunde förut.

Det har spekulerats i att hans krafter främst begränsas av Kal-Els eget psyke, då han belagt sig själv med mentala spärrar för att inte skada människor. Det bekräftas i ett samtal med Kara Zor-El, dåvarande Stålflickan.

Svagheter [redigera]

Kvarlevorna av den sprängda planeten Krypton spred sig runt universum som en grön kristallisk eller metallisk substans känd som kryptonit. Kryptoniten är skadlig för Stålmannen och tar bort hans krafter när den är i närheten av honom. En variant av kryptonit är röd kryptonit, vilken inte skadar honom direkt, men har mycket oförutsägbara effekter på hans psyke och krafter (exempelvis transformerade en gång kryptoniten Stålmannens huvud till ett myrhuvud). Guldkryptonit tar bort Stålmannens krafter permanent när han är under vår gula sol, men denna sort är mycket ovanlig. Det har förekommit ett antal olika varianter av kryptonit under åren, sporadiskt intryckta då de krävdes för att avancera historien och, efter detta, bortglömda. I återskapelsen 1986 försvann dessa helt.

Magi är den andra företeelse som Stålmannen är känslig för. Vid flera tillfällen blir Stålmannen förvandlad, eller hypnotiserad, av illusionister eller voodoo-utövare. Främst av dessa är Mr Mxyzptlk.

Stålmannen får sina krafter från vår sols strålning, som skiljer sig från den strålning som Kryptons stjärna sänder ut. Jordens gula sol ger honom krafter han inte skulle ha haft under Kryptons röda sol. Många historier handlar om hur Stålmannens fiender utsätter honom för syntetisk strålning lik den från röda solar för att neutralisera hans krafter.

Utrustning [redigera]

Stålmannens dräkt innan Crisis on Infinite Earths var gjord av filtar som följde med hans rymdskepp från Krypton. Eftersom de kom från Krypton var även de superslitstarka. Dräkten blev sällan skadad och skyddade även andra som hade den på sig - som en rustning. När Stålmannen flög brukade han svepa in eventuella passagerare i sin mantel för att skydda dem mot luftfriktion. Dessutom var Kents ursprungliga glasögon gjorda av två små glasbitar från rymdskeppet, vilket betydde att han kunde använda sin värmesyn genom dem utan att smälta glaset. När han hade staden Kandor i sin ägo byttes dessa ut mot produkter från professionella vävare och glasmästare från staden. Produkterna hade samma motståndskraft som allt från Krypton. Efter Crisis on Infinite Earths hade inte Stålmannen dessa material, utan istället en tunn aura kring sin kropp som skyddade allt som var tillräckligt nära honom. För att använda värmesynen blev Kent däremot tvungen att lyfta upp sina glasögon.

Stålmannen har även annat till hjälp i sin kamp:

    * Avskildhetsfortet/Nordpolsfästningen (Fortress of Solitude i original) är en stor fästning i Arktis (gamla versionen) eller Antarktis (nya versionen). Ett ställe där Stålmannen kan slappna av. Före Crisis on Infinite Earths hade fortet laboratorier, ett zoo för utomjordiska djur, ett monument över Krypton, ett troférum samt ett gym med specialutrustning anpassat för hans supermuskler. Han hade också hyllningsrum för sina nära vänner där han hade speciella gåvor förberedda ifall Stålmannen avled. I fortets fanns också flaskstaden Kandor, en kryptonsk stad som krympts och stulits av Brainiac innan planeten förstördes. Under åratal arbetade han med att få staden till normal storlek igen och besökte ibland staden genom att tillfälligt krympa sig till dess storlek. Dessutom finns där en robot med artificiell intelligens.
    * Stålmannenrobotar – Kunde härma honom och hans närmaste kompanjoner tillräckligt bra för att till och med lura nära vänner. Han tvingades dock göra sig av med dem när luftföroreningar började störa ut deras funktioner.
    * Blydräkter hade Stålmannen förr som skydd mot kryptonit.
    * Supermobilen var ett fordon som Stålmannen använde när hans krafter försvann eller då han behövde starkare skydd. Supermobilen kunde flyga och hade kraftfulla armar för att hantera objekt utanför skeppet. Den kunde ersätta dom flesta, alternativt alla, av hans superförmågor. För hans supersyn fanns en speciell kikare inbyggd.

Efter Crisis on Infinite Earths hade han också en arsenal av utrustning, vapen och fordon av kryptonsk design, vilket inkluderar en stor människoliknande robot han kunde sitta i.

Stålmannens personlighet [redigera]

Från början var Stålmannens personlighet mycket grov - och ibland ifrågasättbart destruktiv. Ett exempel är i en tidig historia då Stålmannen, efter att ha hört att regeringen inte skulle rusta upp ett slumdistrikt om ingen katastrof skulle inträffa, går bärsärk genom distriktet. När superhjältehistorier började rikta in sig mer mot barn fick Stålmannen sin välkända scoutpersonlighet.

Stålmannen har blivit porträtterad som en människa som skulle offra sitt liv eller sina krafter för mänsklighetens bästa. Han anstränger sig med glädje för att rädda en katt som sitter fast i ett träd eller medverka i välgörenhet. Han arbetar gärna bakom kulisserna så att andra får ta berömmet för hans superdåd. Han är ödmjuk, vilket ofta förvirrar hans fiender som inte kan förstå varför en människa med hans krafter skulle använda livet till att göra gott.

Senare författare har försökt att göra Stålmannens karaktär djupare och ge en förklaring till varför han är så god. Den nya grundidén är att Stålmannen har ett tyngt samvete när det gäller hur han använder sina krafter. Han är rädd för frestelsen att missbruka sina krafter och därigenom förfalla till att bli ett monster eller en despot. Han försöker därför hjälpa de legitima auktoriteterna runt sig, vilket får honom att känna att han kan hålla band på sitt handlande. Hans scoutpersonlighet är ett ytterligare lager självbehärskning för att hjälpa honom att hålla kontrollen. En fortsatt motivation för hans karriär som reporter, förutom att han har privilegierad tillgång till nyheter, är att han lever på ett arbete där han anser att han inte har något orättvist försprång genom sina fysiska attribut.

Stålmannens personlighet har ofta blivit gjord till åtlöje och parodierad, särskilt under de senaste 20 till 30 åren av seriehistorien då mörkare serier dominerat marknaden. Stålmannen kan ses som gammaldags när han jämförs med dagens alla besatta hämnare som säljer bäst på seriemarknaden, men hans dragningskraft lever kvar och han fortsätter att vara en av huvudaktörerna bakom seriemediet efter mer än 60 år på marknaden.

Historia [redigera]

Stålmannen skapades av Jerry Siegel och Joe Shuster, men inte som en hjälte, utan en brottsling. Siegel och Shuster skapade en kort historia kallad The Reign of Superman (Stålmannens regeringstid) om en flintskallig brottsling med mål att dominera världen. Historien sålde dåligt, vilket tvingade upphovsmännen att göra om sin figur och flytta honom till rätt sida av lagen. Den uppdaterade Stålmannen återfanns i Action Comics den 1 juni 1938. Siegel och Shuster sålde rättigheterna till tidningen för 130 dollar år 1947. När figurens popularitet fick dem att stämma tidningen för att få mer pengar blev de sparkade. Stålmannen har haft en ganska jämn popularitet under 1900-talet.

Eftersom serien har funnits i över 60 år har flera serier gjorts om mannen av stål, en radioserie, tecknade filmer, filmer, romaner och sånger. Stålmannen har varit med i ett otroligt antal äventyr som försatt honom i nästan varje tänkbar situation: jorden och många andra planeter, nutid och många olika historiska eror. Genom sin långa historia har han mött nästan varje möjlig fara, hans krafter har varierat från supermänniska till allsmäktighet. Då Stålmannen var allsmäktig skapade detta en otrolig press på de skribenter som arbetade med karaktären eftersom det ger ett nästan oöverstigligt hinder: "Hur skriver jag om en karaktär som är nästan Gud?". Detta, blandat med flera andra skäl, skapade en nedgång i Stålmannens popularitet, särskilt under 60- och 70-talet då DC Comics konkurrent Marvel Comics flyttade karaktärsfördjupningen till en helt ny nivå på superhjältarna i sina serier. Vid det tidiga 80-talet bestämde sig DC Comics för att en drastisk förändring behövdes för att öka Stålmannens popularitet och göra honom mer tilltalande för dagens tidningsköpare. Detta resulterade i omskapandet av Stålmannen 1986 och ledde till stora förändringar i karaktären, vissa mer populära än andra. Omskapandet av serien ledde till att karaktären återigen blev ett av DC:s flaggskepp.

Sedan nya Stålmannen släpptes har DC introducerat flera drastiska förändringar i karaktären, vilket har ökat försäljningen, men även startat en debatt bland fans om huruvida förändringarna verkligen var nödvändiga. Två förändringar i Stålmannen har haft en längre effekt. Den första är "Death And Life Of Superman" då Stålmannen dödas av en brottsling vid namn Doomsday. Han återvänder från de döda för att slutligen besegra sin baneman, och hans död blev upphov till många nya karaktärer och historier. 1995 gifte sig Stålmannen med Lois Lane och de tu har haft ett lyckligt äktenskap än så länge. Framtida förändringar i Stålmannen kan slå om vissa eller alla av dess förändringar.

Ytterligare läsning [redigera]

Här är ett par seriemagasin som finnes i de flesta bokaffärer och som sätter Stålmannen i en ny dager.

    * A Superman for All Seasons - skriven av Jeph Loeb, illustrerad av Tim Sale

Skriven ett år före Smallville berättar den här boken sagan om Stålmannen som ung i ett tidlöst, rockwelliskt Amerika från en konfunderad gosse till en metropolit med superkrafter.

    * Kingdom Come - skriven av Mark Waid, illustrerad av Alex Ross

En helt färglagd episk berättelse i Marvelstil. Det här är berättelsen om Stålmannen i framtiden. Stålmannen har gått i pension, tillsammans med många av de bästa hjältarna från DC-universumet, och därigenom banat väg för en ny årgång superhjältar, vilka är omdömeslösa och moraliskt handikappade.

    * The Death of Superman / World Without a Superman / The Return of Superman - skrivna och illustrerade av flera kreatörer, mestadels Dan Jurgens.

Sagan om Stålmannens död och reaktionen på detta.

    * Superman: Red Son - skriven av Mark Millar.

En saga baserad på premissen "Tänk om Stålmannen vuxit upp i Sovjetunionen?". Istället för att slåss för den amerikanska livsstilen har Stålmannen en djupt rotad tro på arbetarrätt och strävan mot global jämlikhet och förespråkar kommunism runt världen.

Tolkningar i övriga medier [redigera]

Stålmannenkaraktären har vid flera tillfällen hoppat över till radio, TV och filmer. Några av de skådespelare som spelat Stålmannen är George Reeves, Christopher Reeve, Dean Cain och Brandon Routh.


Dean Cain var en mer romantisk Stålman i Lois & Clark

    * 1941-1943: Stålmannen - en animerad filmserie på 17 kortfilmer, producerad av animationsstudiorna Fleischer Studios och Famous Studios för Paramount Pictures.
    * 1940-talet: Radioserien Superman med Bud Collyer startar.
    * 1940-talet: Två Stålmannen-cliffhangers med Kirk Alyn: Superman och Atom Man vs. Superman.
    * 1950-talet: Superman And The Mole Men, film, och The Adventures of Superman, TV-serie, med George Reeves i huvudrollen.
    * 1966: It's a bird...It's a plane...It's Superman, en Broadway-musikalkomedi med text av Lee Adams och musik från Charles Strouse börjar gå.
    * 1966-1969: Stålmannen, animerad TV-serie producerad av Filmation Associates
    * 1978: Superman, film, med Marlon Brando, Gene Hackman och Christopher Reeve.
    * 1980: Superman II med Christopher Reeve.
    * 1983: Superman III med Christopher Reeve.
    * 1984: Supergirl, spin off-film med Helen Slater.
    * 1987: Superman IV: The Quest for Peace med Christopher Reeve.
    * 1988-1992: Superboy, TV-serie med John Haymes Newton (1988-1989) och Gerard Christopher (1989-1992).
    * 1993-1997: Lois & Clark, TV-serie med Teri Hatcher och Dean Cain.
    * 1996-2000: Superman, animerad TV-serie.
    * 2001-2004: Justice League och Justice League Unlimited, animerade TV-serier.
    * 2001-????: Smallville, TV-serie med Tom Welling.
    * 2006: Superman: Brainiac Attacks, animerad TV-film - efterförljare till serien från 1996-2000.
    * 2006: Superman Returns, film med Brandon Routh som Stålmannen.
    * Tidigast 2009: Superman: The Man of Steel, film med Brandon Routh återigen som Stålmannen.

Kulturella influenser [redigera]

Både Stålmannens (i det här fallet Superman) namn och grunden till karaktären har stor skuld till Übermensch-konceptet utvecklat av filosofen Friedrich Nietzsche.

DC Comics har upphovsrätt på många variationer av super-temat, såsom Superdog, Supergal för att undvika parodisering och produktkonfusion. Trots detta har många imitationer och parodier på Stålmannen uppkommit med åren. En av de första Stålmannenimitationerna är Fawcett Comics Captain Marvel, vilket ledde till domstol. Flera parodier på Stålmannen finns att tillgå: Stållångben, Stålkalle, Mighty Mouse, med flera

Under 1990-talet skapade tecknaren och författaren Rob Liefeld en Stålmannenpastisch och skapade då en egen serie kallad Supreme. Serien sålde medelbra från början, men försäljningen sjönk, ända till serien vid nummer 41 togs över av manusförfattaren Alan Moore. Moore skrev 15 nummer av Supreme, som kan ses som en hyllning till Stålmannen innan omstruktureringen 1986.

En av de få karaktärerna med mycket inspiration tagen från Stålmannen som DC Comics inte tagit till juridiska åtgärder mot är karaktären Hyperion från Marvel Comics superhjältelag Squadron Supreme. Squadron Supreme skapades av författare på Marvel för att tillåta dem att göra inofficiella strider mellan Justice League och Avengers. Hyperion är deras version av Stålmannen, the Whizzer är Flash, etc.

Stålmannen tros ha varit delvist inspirerad av Philip Wylies science fiction-roman från 1930 kallad Gladiator. Den handlar om en man vars övermänskliga styrka inspirerar honom till att hjälpa den mänskliga rasen, men istället blir hatad av mänskligheten för de krafter han äger. Andra källor som brukar ses som inspiration till Stålmannen är Doc Savage och The Shadow.

Stålmannen i populärkultur [redigera]

Stålmannen har varit ett populärt tema för musik sedan 1980-talet. Vissa artister, såsom Our Lady Peace och Five for Fighting, har valt att porträttera karaktären som en ensam person tyngd av ansvaret för andra människor. Andra artister, såsom The Kinks, fokuserar på försöken vanliga människor gör för att emulera karaktären Stålmannen. Några exempel:

    * "O Superman (for Massenet)", sång av Laurie Anderson på dennes album Big Science från 1982.
    * "Superman", singel av Eminem från albumet The Eminem Show.
    * "Superman", populär singel från bandet Five for Fighting. Sången, mer känd som "It's Not Easy To Be Me", är tydligt framförd ur Stålmannens synpunkt, även om hans namn aldrig nämns.
    * "Kryptonite" av 3 Doors Down, Stålmannen nämns specifikt i texten - If I go crazy, then will you still call me Superman?
    * "Superman", sång av The Clique från 1969, återinspelad av R.E.M. 1986.
    * "Superman's song", singel av Crash Test Dummies. Låten jämför Stålmannen med Tarzan.
    * "Land of Confusion", låt av Genesis. Nämner Stålmannen i textraden Ooh, Superman, where are you now when everythings going wrong somehow? The men of steel, the men of power are losing control by the hour
    * "Superman", låt av Miguel Bosé från 1970-talet.
    * "Superman", låt av gruppen Ottawan.
    * "Sunshine Superman", låt av Donovan från dennes album med samma namn från 1966.
    * "Superman", låt av The Kinks på albumet One For The Road från 1980.
    * "Superman", låt av Goldfinger från 1998.
    * "Waitin' For A Superman", låt av The Flaming Lips från det kritikerrosade albumet The Soft Bulletin från 1999.
    * "Jimmy Olsen's Blues", Låt av Spin Doctors Lois Lane, Kryptonit, Jimmy Olsen och andra saker från Stålmannen nämns flera gånger.






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